slide 1

 

 

 

Back to the List of the Granted Patents                                      Click here to download KE000095 PDF(11) Patent Number: KE 95
(45) Date of grant: 22/03/2000

(12) PATENT
 
(51) Int.Cl.4:A 61K 45/06
(21) Application Number: 1994/ 000154
(22) Filing Date: 01/11/1994
(30) Priority data:356/ IBOM /93 29/10/1993 IN
 
(73) Owner:Cadila Laboratories Limited of , 244,Ghodasar, P.O. Box 9004 Maninagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, 380 008 INDIA, India
(72) Inventor: Patel, Ramanbhai B. and Modi Indravadan A
(74) Agent/address for correspondence: Kaplan & Stratton Advocates, P.O. Box 40111-00100, Nairobi
 
(54) Title: COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING PIPERINE
(57) Abstract:
A pharmaceutical composition having increased bioavailability characterized by piperine and a drug for treating a disease or condition of the human cardiovascular system, central nervous system, genito urinary tract or haemopoietic system.
 
COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING PIPERINE
The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition having increased therapeutic
efficacy. More particularly, the invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition containing piperine as a bio-availability enhancer. The composition of the present invention is useful for the treatment of diseases which affect the cardiovascular, central nervous, gastro-intestinal, respiratory, endocrine, genito-urinary and haemopoietic systems of the human body.
Though many drugs are available in the market for the treatment of diseases that affect these systems, it is useful for effective and non-toxic drugs for the treatment of the diseases to be available at an inexpensive price.
Accordingly, research is being conducted for the development of the drugs in the direction of ascertaining the dosage form and improving the composition by finding out the minimum possible dosage that will provide effective control of the diseases. In this context the bio-availability of a particular drug for treating the condition is being used for the development of an effective and inexpensive drug.
In the medical field, generally complex compositions are being used for treating many of the ailments mentioned above. In such compositions, it is
CASE: IN 356known to use certain herbs either in combination or individually for enhancing the therapeutic effect of the active drug. There are many reports in which such drugs are combined with other drugs to increase the potency and therapeutic efficacy of the drug. It is not clearly understood as to whether these herbs have inherent properties to cure a variety of diseases or they play a role other than aiding to cure the disease.
Quite a number of studies have been conducted to determine this. Dutt U.C. & King G. in their paper published in Materia Medics of Hindus, Calcutta (1900) have mentioned compositions containing those herbs. Laksmipathi A. their paper titled "one hundred useful drug° in the third edition of Arogya Ashram Samithi, Madras (1946) has reported that these herbs are useful in correcting the balance of Kapha, Vats & Pitta, which according to experts of Ayurveda, are the three humors of the body, the imbalance of which, is responsible for causing diseases. Bose K.G. in their paper published in Pharmacopia Indica, Calcutta, 1928, has justified the property of long pepper for increasing efficacy of Vasaka as an anti-asthmatic agent.
Studies have been made on a scientific basis for ascertaining the purpose for the extensive use of herbs, particularly belonging to the Treaty Group. In their paper, published in Indian Drugs, 1982, (12), 476-479 Doha Zutshi et al, have reported the effect of Trikatu as a whole on vasicine resulting in enhanced bio-availability of the drug to a great extent. They have also observed that Piper longum and Piper nigrum are almost equally effective whereas ginger (Zingiber Officinialie) alone has no significant effect.
In the Indian Patent application No, 1232/DEL/89 of Council of Scientific & Industrial
35 Research New Delhi, India, a process has been described and claimed, in which piperine is used in combination with a known anti-tuberculosis and/or anti-leprosy drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis and/or leprosy, as such a combination imparts synergistic effect on the resultant composition resulting in the increased therapeutic efficacy to the anti-tuberculosis and/or anti-leprosy drugs.
Piperine, (E.E.) 1-(5, 3-benzodioxy1-5-y1)-1-ozo-2, 4-pentadieny]-piperidine, of the formula (1) shown in the drawing accompanying this specification is the main constituent of many Piper species. It is mostly obtained from Piper longum (3-5%) or Piper nigrum (3-9%) which are cultivated on a large scale in India and therefore readily available.
Piperine forms monoclinic prisms from ethanol mp 130°C. It is tasteless at first but induces burning sensation after a few seconds. It is neutral to litmus (pita 12.22). It is soluble in benzene, chloroform, ether, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, alcohol, acetic acid and insoluble in water, and petroleum ether. On alkaline hydrolysis it furnishes a base piperidine andthe acid viz piperic acid, mp 216°C.
IR (KBk): 2930, 1633, 1610, 1580, 1510, 1440, 1250, 1190, 1130, 1030, 995, 930, 842 cm -1.
1H NMR, CDC13 ref TMS: 1.62 (6H, bs,3xCH2 , 3.49 (4H, bs, 2xNCH2), 5.92 (2H, s,O-CH2-O), 6.38(d,J=15Hz, -C-C=C-),6.72-6.92 (6H,m,3 olefinic  3 Ar-H), 7.25-7.51(1H,m,-C-C=C-).
13CNMR (CDC13): 138.4 (C-1), 113.0(C-2), 155.5(C-3), 155.5(C-4) 115.0 (C-5), 129.B(C-6), 145.4(C-7), 132.6 (C-B, 149.6 (C-9), 127.5 (C-10), 172.6(C-11), 50.8(C-1), 33.3 (C-2'), 31.9.    (C-3'), 33.3 (C-4'), 53.5 (C-5'), 10E1.6 (C-6').
MS (%): M+285 (13.6), 200 (100), 172 (42.5), 142 (31.0), 114 (75.1), 84 (32.51).
 
Piperine can be isolated from oleo-resin of Piper nigrum (Black pepper) or Piper longum (long pepper). The powdered fruits of the plant (P.nigrum) are extracted with dichloromethane at room
5 temperature with stirring for 12 hrs. The extract is filtered, concentrated in vacuum and the residue is subjected to purification on an alumina column. Pure piperine can be obtained by crystallization from ethanol. Piperine can also be obtained directly from the crude residue in lesser amounts by extraction with alcohol, filtration and successive crystallization.
On the basis of the disclosure made in the above said application for patent (Indian application 1232/DEL/89), research was continued to find out the reason for the synergistic effect of piperine with the anti-tuberculosis and/or anti-leprosy drugs.
As a result of the inventors' sustained research work, the inventors have found that the reason for such selective behavior of piperine is attributed to the following:
(i) Synergistic property to increase the absorption of certain drugs; the invention is of particular use in respect of absorption of such drug through the membranes of the gastro-intestinal tract of the human body.

(ii) Its role to retain certain drugs when combined with it in the human body for a longer period of time without allowing the drug to be eliminated from the body.
(iii) Its property to increase the binding of the serum proteins and thereby retaining the major part of the drug combined with it in the body for a longer period of time.
(iv) Its property to stimulate the natural immune mechanism of the body so as to enhance the
production of antibodies against microbial infections. Based on the above mentioned findings the inventors continued their research to find out the effect of piperine on the increase and/or modification of the bio-availability of a drug when piperine is combined with the drug. Accordingly, the inventors have tried the combination of piperine of the formula
 


with antimicrobial agents, antiprotozoal agents, anthelmintic agents, and cardiovascular, central
15 nervous system, non-steroid anti-inflammatory, respiratory, antihistaminics, prokinetic drugs, corticosteroids, steroid hormones, oral vaccines, hasminatics, vitamins, antiulcer drugs, muscle relaxants and anticancer drugs.
The inventors' research work has revealed that the synergistic effect of the combination of piperine is not only with anti-tuberculosis and anti-leprosy drugs. The effect is non-uniform and highly selective. The effect also produces synergistic activity in increasing the bio-availability of certain other selective drugs.
The inventors have now found that due to the synergistic effect, the bio-availability of the drugs mentioned below are also increased when these drugs are combined with piperine.
1. Antimicrobial agents such as:
Ciprofloxacin
Pefloxacin
Ofloxacin
Norfloxacin
Phenoxymethyl penicillin
Ampicillin
Amoxycillin
Cloxacillin
Erythromycin
Roxithromycin
 
Azithromycin
Cephalexin
Cefadroxil
Cerfuoxine axetil
Cefixime
Co-trimokazole
 Acyclovir
Cofactor
Clofazimine
Fluconazole
Griseofulvin
Ketoconazole
2. Antiprotozoal agents such as;
Metronidazole
Tinidazole
Quinine
Chloroguine
Primaguine
Sulfadoxine + Pyrinethamine
3. Anthelmintic agents such as:
Meibendazole in H.cyst
4. Cardiovascular drum; such as:
 Amlodipine
Diltiazem
Atenolol
Lisinopril
Lovastatin
Gemfibrozil
 Nifedipine
Enalapril
Propanolol
5. Drugs acting on Central Nervous System such as:
L-dopa
Buspirone
Dextropropoxyphene
Pentazocine
Morphine derivatives
Diazepam
Lorazepam
Alprazolam
Haloperidol
Chlorpromazine
Thioridazine
 
6. Non-steroid Anti-inflammatory Drugs such as:
Diclofenac
Ketorolac
Piroxicam
Ibuprofen
Indomethacin
Naproxen
7. Drugs used in treatment of Respiratorydisorders such as:
Solbutamol
Terbutaline
Theophylline
Bromhexine

8. Antihistaminics such as:
Astemizole
Terfenadine
Loratadine
9. Prokinetic drugs such as:
Metoclopramide
Domperidone
Cisapride
10. Corticosteroids such as:
Prednisolone
Dexamethasone
Betamethaaone
11. Steroid hormones such as:
Stanazolol
Oral Contraceptives
12. Vaccines such as:
Oral polio
13. Haematinic/Vitamins such as:
Ferrous/Ferric Containing
Drugs, Multivitamin
Preparations.
14. Antiulcer drugs such as:
Omeprazole
Ranitidine
Femotidine etc.
 
15. Central muscle relaxants such as:
Carisoprodol
 Chlormezanone
16. ANTI-CANCER DRUGS:
(i) ALKYLATING AGENTS such as:
Mechlorthiamine
Cyclophosphamide
Ifosamide
Chlorambucil
Hexamethylmelamine
Thiotepa
Rusulfan
Carmustine
Lomustine
Semustine
Streptozotocin
Decarbazine
(ii) ANTIMITABOLITE such as:
Methotrexate
5-Flurourecil
Floxuridine
Cytosine arabinoside
6-Mercaptopurine
Thioguanine
Pentostatin
(iii) NATURAL PRODUCTS such as:
Vincristine
 Vinblastin
Etoposide
Teniposide
Dectinimycin
Daunorubicin
Doxorubicin
Epirubicin
Idarubicin
Bleomycin
Mithramycin
Mitomycin
L- Asparaginase
Interferon Alfa
(iv) MISCELLANEOUS AGENTS sucks as:

Cisplatin
 Carboplatin
 
Mitoxantrone
 Hydroxyurea
Procarbazine
 Mitotane
Aminoglutethimide
(v) HORMONES AND HORMONE ANTAGONISTS such as:
Prednisolone
Hydroxyprogestirone
Medroxyprogestirone
Megestrol
Diethylstilbestirole
Ethinyl estradiol
Tamoxifen
Testosterone propionate
Fluoxymesterone
Flutamide
Leuprolide
The present invention also provides a process for the preparation of pharmaceutical compositions
having increased therapeutic efficacy which comprises piperine of the formula
 
 

 
The pharmaceutical preparations are prepared by mixing a drug used in the treatment of the cardiovascular, central nervous system, gastro-intestinal tract, respiratory tract, endocrine system, genito-urinary tract or the haemopoietic system of the human body with piperine.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the quantity of piperine used may vary from 0.1 to 50% by weight of the drug. More preferably the amount of piperine may vary from 0.1 to 20% by weight of the drug. The amount of the drug in the composition may vary from 70 to 95% by weight of the composition. The remaining 30 to 5% of the composition is made up of piperine and as necessary pharmaceutically acceptable inert excipients, vehicles diluents and/or binding
agents. Though the efficacy of the composition has more effect when piperine and the drug are administered in one single composition, the possibility of administering the required quantity of the drug and piperine separately is also envisaged according to this invention. In other words, the drug and piperine may be administered to the patient separately. However, it is preferred to use the composition as a single dosage form. It is also preferred that the composition be administered orally. If the drug and piperine are administered separately, it is also preferred that they be administered orally.

The drugs used in the composition may be any one or more of the drugs mentioned above.
Piperine as such does not have any pharmaceutical or medicinal properties. It is therefore surprising that it causes a synergistic effect in increasing the bio-availability of the drugs mentioned above.
It would be observed from the above description that piperine when mixed with the above said drugs produces synergistic effects resulting in a composition which has enhanced bio-availability of the drug and consequently helps in reducing the quantity of drug to be administered to the patient for producing the sane therapeutic effect. Such an effect will avoid unnecessary administration of the drug to the patient, which will help in minimizing, reducing or eliminating whatever the adverse effect the drug might have on the patient. In other words, such a combination increases the therapeutic index of the drug.
Therefore, the combination of piperine and any one or more of the drugs mentioned above, is not a mere admixture of the ingredients employed in the process resulting in the mere aggregation of the properties of the ingredients.
The pharmaceutical composition prepared by the process of the present invention may be in any form which is usually employed for the administration of the drug for therapeutic purposes. Accordingly, the composition may be in the form of tablets, capsules, syrups, liquids suspensions, elixirs, caplets, powders, chewables, wafers, lozenges, topical preparations, patches and the like. The composition may also include flavorings, colorings and/or sweeteners.
The invention is described in detail in the examples given below which are prepared by way of illustration only and therefore should not be construed to or limit the scope of the present invention.
EXAMPLE 1
COMPOSITION
Amlodipine            ……...      …………… 10 mg.                       
Piperine                ……….      …………...   5 mg
                
                               

Dosage Form: Hard gelatin capsules
PREPARATION OF FORMULATION
According to the standards and methods mentioned in pharmacopoeia, the purity of amlodipine and its potency was analyzed. It was observed that the drug was in accordance to the standards in all respects. In order to confirm and ensure the purity of piperine as a single entity, piperine was subjected to various biological assays such as physical, chemical and chromatography (TLC and HPLC).
Amlodipine and piperine were milled. The two components were blended together. They were then mixed thoroughly to a homogenous mixture by repeated sieving.
The homogeneity of five random samples of the mixture was confirmed from reproducible analysis. The formulation was then encapsulated in hard gelatin capsule in hand-operated capsule filling machine.
METHOD OF CLINICAL TRIAL
To compare the bio-availability of two formulations containing amlodipine (with and without piperine) a clinical study was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers. It was observed that addition of piperine increased blood levels of the active ingredient Amlodipine.

EXAMPLE 2
COMPOSITION
 Pentazocine Piperine    ……………        ………….                25 sag.
                    
 Piperine                        ……………        ………….                5 mg.
                    
Dosage Form: Hard gelatin capsules.    

PREPARATION OF FORMULATION
Based on the pharmacopoeal methods of standardization, the analysis of pentazocine was done to confirm its purity and potency. It was demonstrated that in all respects the drug was consistent to the standards laid down in pharmacopoeia. Various methods of assays such as chemical, physical and chromatography (TLC and HPLC) were employed to confirm the purity of piperine as a single entity.
Both pentazocine and piperine were milled and were then blended together. With repeated sieving, both the components were mixed to a homogenous mixture. Five samples of mixtures were randomly selected and their homogeneity was confirmed by reproducible analysis. With the help of hand-operated capsule filling machine, the formulation was encapsulated in hard gelatin capsule.
METHOD OF CLINICAL TRIAL
A clinical trial was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers in order to compare the bio-availability of two formulations containing pentazocine (with and without piperine). It was demonstrated that incorporation of piperine increased blood levels of the active ingredient pentazocine.
 
EXAMPLE3
COMPOSITION
Ranitidine                    ………….    …………      150 mg.
Piperine                        ………….    …………      5 mg.

Dosage Form: Hard gelatin capsules
PREPARATION OF FORMULATION
Based on the Pharmacopoeal methods of standardization, the analysis of ranitidine was done to confirm its purity and potency. It was demonstrated that in all respects the drug was consistent to the standards laid down in Pharmacopoeia. Various assays such as chemical, physical and chromatography (TLC and HPLC) were employed to confirm the purity of piperine as a single entity.
Both ranitidine and piperine were milled and were then blended together. With repeated sieving, both the components were mixed to a homogenous mixture. Five samples of the mixtures were
randomly selected and their homogeneity was confirmed by reproducible analysis. With the help of hand-operated capsule filling machine, the formulation was encapsulated in hard gelatin capsules.

METHOD OF CLINICAL TRIAL
A clinical trial was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers, in order to compare the bio-availability of two formulations containing ranitidine (with and without piperine). It was demonstrated that incorporation of piperine increased blood levels of the active ingredient ranitidine.

EXAMPLE 4
COMPOSITION
Theophylline       ………….          …………..     150 mg.
Piperine              …………             ……………       5 mg.

Dosage Form: Hard Gelatin capsules.
 
PREPARATION OF FORMULATION
Pharmacopoeal methods of standardization were employed for the analysis of theophylline and to confirm its purity and potency. It was found that the drug was in consonance with the Pharmacopoeal standards in all respects. In order to assess the purity of piperine as a single entity, various methods of analysis such as physical, chemical and chromatography (including TLC and HPLC) ware employed.
Alter milling theophylline and piperine, they were then blended together. Roth the components were then mixed to a homogenous mixture with repeated sieving. Reproducible analysis was considered as a measure to confirm the homogeneity of the randomly selected five samples of the mixtures. Hand-operated capsule filling machine was used for encapsulation of the formulation in hard gelatin capsules.
METHOD OF CLINICAL TRIAL
Bio-availability of two formulations containing theophylline (with and without piperine) were compared in 12 healthy volunteers, by conducting a controlled-clinical trial. It was found that addition of piperine enhanced blood levels of the active ingredient theophylline.

   EXAMPLE 5
COMPOSITION
Prednisolone                     ………….         …………     10 mg.
Piperine                            ………….          ………...      5 mg.
Dosage Form: Hard gelatin capsules.
PREPARATION OF FORMULATION
The purity of prednisolone and its potency was analyzed to its Pharmacopoeal standards using the methods prescribed therein. The drug was found to be conforming to standards in all respects. Piperine was subjected to various physical and chemical analysis including chromatography (TLC and HPLC) in order to confirm and ensure its purity as a single entity.
Both prednisolone and piperine were milled. The two components were blended together and then mixed thoroughly to a homogenous mixture by repeated sieving. Reproducible analysis of five random samples of the mixture confirmed its homogeneity. The formulation thus obtained was encapsulated in hard-gelatin capsules in hand-operated capsule filling machines.
METHOD OF CLINICAL TRIAL
A clinical trial was carried out in 12 healthy volunteers, in order to compare the bio-availabilityof two formulations containing prednisolone (with and without piperine). It was observed that blood levels of the active ingredient prednisolone.
EXAMPLE 6
COMPOSITION
Ciprofloxacin              …………    ………….. 250 mg.
Piperine                       …………    ……….....  5 mg.
Dosage Form: Hard gelatin capsules
PREPARATION OF FORMULATION
Pharmacopoeal methods of standardization was employed for the analysis of Ciprofloxacin and to confirm its purity and potency. It was found that the drug was in consonance with the Pharmacopoeal standards in all respects. In order to assess the purity of piperine as a single entity, various methods of analysis such as physical, chemical and chromatography (including TLC and HPLC) were employed.
After milling ciprofloxacin and piperine, they were then blended together. Both the components were then mixed to a homogenous mixture with repeated sieving. Reproducible analysis was considered as a measure to confirm the homogeneity of the randomly selected five samples of the mixtures. Hand-operated capsule filling machine was used for encapsulation of the formulation in hard gelatin capsules.
METHOD OF CLINICAL TRIAL
Bio-availability of two formulations containing ciprofloxacin (with and without piperine) ware compared in 12 healthy volunteers, by conducting a controlled-clinical trial. It was found that addition of piperine enhanced blood levels of the active ingredient ciprofloxacin.

EXAMPLE 7
COMPOSITION
Methotrexate                ……………….      ……………. 10 mg.
Piperine                        ……………….      ……………..   5 mg.
                
                
PREPARATION OF FORMULATION
The purity of methotrexate and its potency was analyzed to its Pharmacopoeal standards using the methods prescribed therein. The drug was found to be conforming to standards in all respects piperine was subjected to various physical, chemical analysis including chromatography (TLC and HPLC) in order to confirm and ensure its purity as a single entity.
Both methotrexate and piperine were milled. The two components were blended together and then mixed thoroughly to a homogenous mixture by repeated sieving. Reproducible analysis of five random samples of the mixture confirmed its homogeneity. The formulation thus obtained was encapsulated in hard gelatin capsules in hand-operated capsule filling machine.
METHOD OF CLINICAL TRIAL
A clinical trial was carried out in 12 healthy volunteers, in order to compare the bio-availability of two formulations containing methotrexate (with and without piperine). It was observed that addition of piparine increased blood levels of the active ingredient methotrexate.

 

 

 

Newsletter

Join our newsletter for CIPIT news through subscriptions!

SEND

Social Media

    

Contact Us

TEL : (254) 703 034 612