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(11) Patent Number: KE 94
(45) Date of grant: 22/03/2000

(12) PATENT
 
(51) Int.C1.6: A 01N 25/28
(21) Application Number: 1996/ 000077
(22) Filing Date: 10/10/1996
(30) Priority data:9520705.6 10/10/1995 GB
(86) PCT data
PCT/AU96/00639 10/10/1996
WO 19/970134    17/04/1997
 
(73) Owner: R & C PRODUCTS PTY. LIMITED; of, Australia
(72) Inventor:ALLISON, Gavin, Ian; BASSAM, Dean, Anthony; and THOMPSON, Ian, Andrew;
(74) Agent/address for correspondence: Kaplan & Stratton Advocates, P.O. Box 40111-00100, Nairobi
 
(54) Title: INSECTICIDAL COMPOSITION
(57) Abstract:
An insecticidal composition in the form of an aerosol water-in-oil emulsion is disclosed which comprises: (a) an amount of an aqueous suspension of microencapsulated insecticide to give an insecticide concentration in the composition of from 0.001 to 5% w/w; (b) one or more solvents in an amount of from 1 to 20% w/w; (c) one or more emulsifiers in an amount of from 02 to 10% w/w and selected from the group comprising mono-, di- and tri-sorbitan esters, polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters, mono- and poly-glycerol esters, ethoxylated nonionic emulsifiers, propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers and ethoxylated/propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers; (d) from 2 to 80% w/w of one or more propellants; (e) optionally from 0.001 to 5% w/w of one or more oil phase soluble insecticides; and (f) the balance being water.
 
Insecticidal Composition

Technical Field
This invention relates to insecticidal compositions in aerosol form, in particular to such compositions where the insecticidally active ingredients are microencapsulated so as to provide a sustained release effect.
Background Art
It is well recognized in the art that microencapsulation ofinsecticides is useful where it is desired to provide compositions where the insecticide is subject to sustained release. The advantage of such compositions is obvious in that an insecticidal effect is provided over a prolonged period of time.
Such compositions may, for example, be used in and around buildings so as to prevent the entry of insects.
A variety of microencapsulation methods and compositions are known in the art as represented by the microencapsulated lambda-cyhalothrin (available from Zeneca as DEMAND CS®). This material is available as 2.5 and 10% w/v aqueous capsule suspensions. In use, it is diluted with water and dispensed using a suitable spray means.
Whilst such diluted formulations are useful for professional pest controllers, they are of limited use owing to the inconvenience of preparation, particularly in domestic or other situations where ready to use non-sustained release insecticidal formulations are currently available. There is, therefore, a strong requirement for a sustained release ready to use formulation suitable for domestic and other situations.
One form of insecticide composition that is widely used domestically are aerosol insecticides. Generally water based aerosol insecticide compositions are emulsions with the active insecticide(s) being incorporated in the continuous oil phase.
By contrast, incorporation of microencapsulated insecticides, particularly microencapsulated insecticides that are aqueous dispersions or suspensions into aerosol compositions has been found to be problematic owing to the instability of the so-formed emulsions. This instability has been attributed to the fact that the microencapsulated insecticide is present in the dispersed aqueous phase rather than the oil phase as occurs with conventional water based aerosol insecticides.
 
Given the potential utility of sustained release insecticides in aerosol form, the present inventors have directed considerable efforts towards providing a formulation which is both effective and stable.
Surprisingly, the present inventors have found that it is possible to produce such formulations by using particular emulsifiers that act to stabilize the compositions whilst not impairing insecticidal effectiveness.
Disclosure of the Invention
Accordingly, the present invention consists in an insecticidal composition in the form of an aerosol water-in-oil emulsion comprising:
(a)an amount of an aqueous suspension of microencapsulated insecticide to give an insecticide concentration in the composition of from 0.001 to 5% w/w;
(b) one or more solvents in an amount of from 1 to 20% w/w;
(c) one or more emulsifiers in an amount of from 0.2 to 10% w/w andselected from the group comprising mono-, di-and tri-sorbitan esters, polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters, mono- and poly glycerol esters, ethoxylated nonionic emulsifiers, propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers and ethoxylated/propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers;
(d) from 2 to 80% w/w of one or more propellants;
(e) optionally from 0.001 to 5% w/w of one or more oil phase soluble insecticides; and
(f)    the balance being water.
In a second and related aspect, the present invention further consists in an insecticidal composition in the form of an aerosol water-in-oil emulsion comprising:
(a) an amount of an aqueous suspension of microencapsulated insecticide to give an insecticide concentration in the composition of from 0.001 to 5% w/w;
(b) one or more solvents in an amount of from 1 to 20% w/w;
(c) one or more emulsifiers in an amount of from 0.2 to 10% w/w and selected from the group comprising mono-, di-and tri-sorbitan esters, polyoxysthylene sorbitan esters, mono- and poly-glycerol esters, ethoxylated nonionic emulsifiers, propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers and ethoxylated/propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers;
(d) from 2 to 80% w/w of one or more propellants;
 (e) optionally from 0.001 to 5% w/w of one or more oil phase soluble
insecticides; and
(f) the balance being water;
the composition having an HLB requirement of 4 to 7, preferably 4.5-6.5, most preferably about 5.5.
The term "HLB" has the usual meaning in the art, namely the hydrophilic-Iipophilic balance of the emulsifiers referred to in this specification.
The required HLB is calculated according to the formula:-HLB=xA+(1-x)B, where x is the proportion of an emulsifier having an HLB of A and B is the HLB of the other emulsifier.
Surprisingly, it has been found that in use, the compositions of the invention wherein the microencapsulated insecticide is a synthetic pyrethroid, retain their insecticidal activity when sprayed onto synthetic polymeric surfaces such as vinyl "surfaces". This is unexpected as it has been found in the past that prior art pyrethroid compositions are substantially reduced in their insecticidal activity on vinyl "surfaces".
Accordingly, in a third and related aspect, this invention still further consists in a method of killing insects that contact a synthetic polymeric surface comprising applying to the surface an insecticidal composition in the form of an aerosol water-in-oil emulsion comprising
(a) an amount of an aqueous suspension of microencapsulated
insecticide to give an insecticide concentration in the composition of from 0.001 to 5% w/w;
(b) one or more solvents in an amount of from 1 to 20% w/w;
(c) one or more emulsifiers in an amount of from 0.2 to 10% w/w and selected from the group comprising mono-, di-and tri-sorbitan esters, polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters, mono- and poly-glycerol esters, ethoxylated nonionic emulsifiers, pmpoxylated nonionic emulsifiers and ethoxylated/propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers;
(d)from 2 to 80% w/w of one or more propellants;
(e)optionally from 0.001 to 5% w/w of one or more oil phase soluble insecticides; and
(f) the balance being water.
Throughout this specification all percentages are w/w unless otherwise stated.
 
Microencapsulated Insecticide
The microencapsulated insecticide is incorporated in the compositions of the invention as an aqueous suspension so as to give a concentration of insecticide in a composition of from 0.001 to 5%. A preferred concentration range is from 0.001 to 1%.
A wide range of active insecticides may be used of which pyrethroids, particularly synthetic pyrethroids, chlorpyrifos and diazinon are preferred.
When a synthetic pyrethroid such as imiprothrin is used, generally it 10 will be incorporated in an amount to give a concentration at the lower end of the range, i.e. 0.001% or more.
Synthetic pyrethroids such as lambda cyhalothrin will generally be incorporated in higher concentrations such as 0.01 to 0.5%, preferably 0.01 to 0.1%, most preferably about 0.06%.
Other synthetic pyrethroids such as cypermethrin, permethrin will generally be incorporated to give a concentration of about 0.2% or 0.4% respectively or more.
Chlorpyrifos and diazinon will generally be incorporated to give concentrations in the range of 0.5 to 0.9% or about 0.6% respectively.
For most applications, the preferred concentration of insecticide will be 0.001 to 1%.
A wide range of microencapsulation technologies and compositions may be used, providing that the microencapsulated insecticide is capable of being formed into an aqueous dispersion.
One form of microencapsulation technology that is particularly useful in this invention is that offered by Zeneca and in particular its microencapsulated lambda cyhalothrin is available as DEMAND CS®. This material is made according to EP-A-85301744 and is presented as aqueous suspensions, the concentration of the active insecticide being about 2.5% or 10% w/v. Preferably the 10% w/v material is used in this invention.
DEMAND CS® may be incorporated in the compositions of the present invention to give an insecticide concentration of about 0.06%.
Solvent
In order to maintain emulsion stability and where required to enable 35 the incorporation of an optional oil phase soluble insecticide, a solvent is incorporated in the compositions of the invention in an amount of from 1 to 20%. Generally, the solvent will be water immiscible.
A wide range of solvent materials may be used, although care should be exercised to ensure that the solvent does not adversely affect insecticidal activity or effect the microcapsules.
Specifically, the solvent selected should not dissolve the microcapsules, nor rupture the walls thereof or cause the insecticide to be discharged by leaching.
Furthermore, it should be noted that combinations of solvents may be used.
Examples of solvents that may be used in the compositions of the invention include:- liquid n-paraffins, liquid isoparaffins, cycloalkanes, naphthene-containing solvents, white spirit, kerosene, ester solvents, silicone solvents or oils, fatty acids, dialkyl phthalates, C5-C11 alcohols and fatty alcohols.
Specific examples of these are as follows:-liquid n-paraffins-Norpar 12, Norpar 13 and Norpar (available from Exxon) liquid isoparaffins-Isopar G, Isopar H, Isopar L, Isopar M and Isopar V (available from Exxon)
Naphthene-containing solvents-Exxsol D40, E,ocsol D60, Exxsol D80, Exxsol D100, Exxsol D110, Nappar 10 (available from Exxon) Ester solvents-such as alkyl acetates, examples being Exxate 1000, Exxate 1300 (available from Exxon), and Coasol (available from Chemoxy International); Silicone solvents oils-Dow Corning 244, 245, 344 and 345 fluids,
Fatty acids - caprylic acid, caproic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, behenic acid, oleic acid; Fatty alcohols - octanol, dodecanol, lauryl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, cetostearyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol.
Preferred solvents are liquid hydrocarbon solvents, n-paraffins, and iso-paraffins.
Although the solvent may be incorporated as a level of from 1 to 20%, preferably the concentration will be in the range of 2 to 10%, most preferably about 5%.
 
Propellants
One or more propellants are used in the composition of the invention in a total amount of from 2 to 80%. Amongst the propellants that may be used are hydrocarbons and compressed gas of which hydrocarbons are preferred.
In the case of the hydrocarbon propellants those that may be used are acetylene, methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propene, n-butane, nu-butene, isobutane, isobutene, pentane, pentene, isopentane and isopentene.
Mixtures of these propellants may also be used. Indeed, it should be noted that commercially available propellants typically contain a number of hydrocarbon gases. For example, an odorized commercial butane available from Boral gas contains predominantly n-butane and some iso-butane along with small amounts of propane, propene, pentane and butene.
Preferred hydrocarbon propellants include propane, n-butane, isobutane, pentane and isopentane, whilst most preferred are propane, isobutane and n-butane.
Particularly preferred hydrocarbon propellants are mixtures of propane, n-butane and iso-butane.
Whilst broadly the concentration of hydrocarbon propellant will be from 2 to 80%, generally the concentration will be from 10 to 60%, preferably 25 to 60% most preferably about 40%.
When compressed gases are used as a propellant generally these will be carbon dioxide, nitrogen or air. Usually, they will be used at a concentration of 2 to 10%, preferably about 596.
The person skilled in the art will appreciate that the pressure in an aerosol package will be determined by propellant or mixture of propellant. This pressure will have a determining effect on spray rates. Hence for any particular valve system, varying the propellant or propellant mixture will allow for the selection of a desired spray rate.
Likewise for a particular propellant or propellant mixture, it is possible to select a valve and actuator system to achieve a desired rate.
Emulsifiers
One or more emulsifiers in an amount of from 0.2 to 10% and selected from the group comprising mono-, di- and tri-sorbitan esters, polyoxyethyIem lorbitan esters, mono- and poly-glycerol esters, ethoxylated nonionic emulsifiers, propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers and ethoxylated/propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers are used in the compositions of the invention. Preferably the emulsifiers are selected from this group only.
Amongst the ethoxylated nonionic emulsifiers may be mentioned:-ethoxylated alkyl phenols, ethoxylated dialkylphenols; fatty acid ethoxylates, fatty alcohol ethoxylates and fatty amine ethoxylates.
Preferred amongst the ethoxylated nonionic emulsifiers are: - soya amine ethoxylates, tallow amine ethoxylates, octadecylamine ethoxylates, nonyIphenol ethoxylates and octylphenol ethoxylates.
Amongst the mono-, di- and tri-sorbitan esters, polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters, mono- and poly-glycerol esters, preferably, the emulsifiers will be esters with C10-C22 fatty acids. Particularly preferred are C12-C18 fatty acids.
It has been found advantageous to use two emulsifiers in the compositions of the invention. Generally, one of the emulsifiers will be a polyoxyethylene sorbitan ester whilst the second emulsifier will be chosen from either mono-, di- and tri-sorbitan esters and mono- and poly-glycerol esters.
Alternatively, one of the emulsifiers may be a mono-, di- and tri-sorbitan ester whilst the second emulsifier is selected from ethoxylated alkyl phenols, ethoxylated dialkylphenols, fatty acid ethoxylates, fatty alcohol ethoxylates and fatty amine ethoxylates.
Some combinations of emulsifiers that have been found to be effective are sorbitan monooleate with 20 moles of ethylene oxide sorbitan monooleate; and glycerol monooleate with 20 moles of ethylene oxide sorbitan monooleate.
Whilst the total emulsifier concentration may be 0.2 to 10%, generally the concentration will be 0.5 to 8% preferably 1 to 5%, most preferably about 1 to 2%, particularly about 1.2%.

When two emulsifiers are used, usually the ratio of the polyoxyethylene sorbitan ester to mono-, di- and tri-sorbitan esters or mono-and poly-glycerol esters will be from 0.5 to 3:9.5 to 7, preferably 0.5 to 1.5:9.5 to 8.5, most preferably 1.1: 8.9.
Alternatively when one of the emulsifiers is selected from ethoxylated alkyl phenols, ethoxylated dialkylphenols, fatty acid ethoxylates, fatty alcohol ethoxylates and fatty amine ethoxylates the ratio of these emulsifiers to mono-, di- and tri-sorbitan esters will be from 0.5 to 3:16 to 7, preferably 0.5 to 1.5:13 to 8.5, most preferably 0.5 to 1.0: 12 to 9.
Optional Insecticides and Other Ingredients
A wide range of insecticides may be included in the oil phase as required. These include natural pyrethrum, synthetic pyrethroidschlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichloryos and propoxur.
In addition to the optional insecticides, synergists such as MGK-264 and piperonyl butoxide may be included for use in conjunction with pyretbroid insecticides.
The persons skilled in the art will also recognize that a perfume may be readily incorporated in the compositions of the invention to satisfy organoleptic requirements.
In addition, other ingredients such as corrosion inhibitors and 15 preservatives may be used as required.
Preparation
The compositions of the invention may be prepared by dispersing the microencapsulated insecticide in water. Solvent plus the emulsifier(s) including if required an optional insecticide, is separately prepared. The water phase is added to the solvent phase so as to produce an emulsified concentrate.
The concentrate is then blended with propellant and filled into cans. Alternatively, the concentrate and the propellant may be filled into cans together.
Modes for Carrying Out the Invention
In order to better understand the nature of this invention, a number of examples will now be described.
Example


Ingredient    % w/w
Example No
                                                                    1
Lambda-cyhalothrin 10    0.6
Crester 2076    0.75
Norpar 13    6.1
Water    42.55
H55    50
HLB   5
     

Efficacy
In order to demonstrate the efficacy of compositions of the invention, Example 32 was tested as set out below.

Ingredient    Example 32
% w/w
Lambda-cyhalothrin 10    0.625
Tetramethrin 93.7    0.370
Span 80    1.020
Tween 80    0.180
Isopar G    9.775
Water    48.010
H-40    40.00
Butylated hydroxytoluene    0.020

(1)    Indoor study, evaluating the effect of exposure of the American cockroach to a hardboard surface that had been previously sprayed with Example 32.
This was compared with an aerosol containing an equivalent quantity of technical grade lambda-cyhalothrin that had not been encapsulated.
This trial demonstrated superior performance of Example 32 against the non-encapsulated composition 24 hours post treatment.

(2) Outdoor study against the American cockroach, comparing the efficacy of Example 32 against two existing commercial aerosols, one containing cypermethrin and the other containing cyfluthrin. Assessments (% knockdown and mortality) were over a 3 month period, the test surfaces being unpainted plywood, painted hardboard and unglazed terracotta tiles.
The trial demonstrated that Example 32 gave superior knockdown and mortality at all assessment periods and on all surfaces when compared with the two commercial products.
(3)    Outdoor study against the German cockroach, comparing the efficacy of Example 32 against two existing commercial aerosols, one containing cypermethrin and the other containing cyfluthrin.
 
Assessments (96 knockdown and mortality) were over a 3 month period, the test surfaces being unpainted plywood, painted hardboard and unglazed terracotta tiles.
The trail demonstrated that Example 32 gave superior knockdown 5    and mortality at all assessment periods and on all surfaces when compared with the two commercial products.
(4) Outdoor study against the American cockroach, evaluating the efficacy of Example 32. Knockdown was assessed for up to 3 months post treatment, the test surfaces being terracotta brick, terracotta unglazed tiles, compressed cement sheeting and rough-sawn timber. From this trial it was concluded that Example 32 gave excellent 3 month outdoor residual control of American cockroaches when applied to a variety of typical porous surfaces.

It will be appreciated by persons skilled in the art that numerous variations and/or modifications may be made to the invention as shown in the specific embodiments without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention as broadly described. The present embodiments are, therefore, to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive.
 
CLAIMS
1. An insecticidal composition in the form of an aerosol water-in-oil emulsion comprising:
(a) an amount of an aqueous suspension of microencapsulated 5 insecticide to give an insecticide concentration in the composition of from 0.001 to 5% w/w;
(b) one or more solvents in an amount of from 1 to 20% w/w;
(c) one or more emulsifiers in an amount of from 0.2 to 10% w/w and selected from the group comprising mono-, di-and tri-sorbitan esters, polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters, mono- and poly-glycerol esters, ethoxylated nonionic emulsifiers, propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers and ethoxylated/propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers;
(d) from 2 to 80% w/w of one or more propellants;
(e) optionally from 0.001 to 5% w/w of one or more oil phase soluble 15 insecticides; and
(f)  the balance being water.

2. An insecticidal composition in the form of an aerosol water-in-oil emulsion comprising:
(a) an amount of an aqueous suspension of microencapsulated 20 insecticide to give an insecticide concentration in the composition of from 0.001 to 5% w/w;
(b) one or more solvents in an amount of from 1 to 20% w/w;
(c) one or more emulsifiers in an amount of from 0.2 to 10% w/w and selected from the group comprising mono-, di-and tri-sorbitan esters, polyethylene sorbitan esters, mono- and poly-glycerol esters, ethoxylated nonionic emulsifiers, propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers and ethoxylated/propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers;
(d) from 2 to 80% w/w of one or more propellants;
(e) optionally from 0.001 to 5% w/w of one or more oil phase soluble 30 insecticides; and
(f)  the balance being water; the composition having an HLB requirement of 4 to 7, preferably 4.5-6.5, most preferably about 5.5.
 
3. An insecticidal composition as in claim 1 including as emulsifiers a polyoxyethylene sorbitan ester and either a mono-, di- or tri-sorbitan ester or a mono- or poly-glycerol ester.
4. An insecticidal composition as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3 wherein the concentration of the one or more emulsifiers is 0.5 to 8% w/w, preferably 1 to 5% w/w, most preferably about 1 to 2% w/w, particularly about 1.2% w/w.
5. An insecticidal composition as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the emulsifier is selected from the group consisting of ethoxylated nonionic emulsifiers, propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers, ethoxylated/propoxylated nonionic emulsifiers and mono-, di- or tri-sorbitan esters.
6. An insecticidal composition as claimed in claim 5 including as emulsifiers a mono-, di- or tri-sorbitan ester and one of ethoxylated alkyl phenols, ethoxylated dialkylphenols, fatty acid ethoxylates, fatty alcohol ethoxylates and fatty amine ethoxylates.
7. An insecticidal composition as claimed in any one of claims I to 6 wherein the concentration of microencapsulated insecticide is from 0.001 to 1% w/w.
8. An insecticidal composition as claimed in claim 7 wherein the insecticide is lambda cyhalothrin, preferably in a concentration of 0.01 to 0.5% w/w, most preferably 0.01 to 0.1% w/w.
9. An insecticidal composition in the form of an aerosol water-in-oil emulsion as described herein, with reference to any one of examples 1 to 8.
10. A method of killing insects that contact a synthetic polymeric surface comprising applying to the surface an insecticidal composition as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9. 

 

 

 

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