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(11) Patent Number: KE 63
(45) Date of grant: 17/07/2007

(12) PATENT
 
(51) Int.C1.6: A OIN 43/80
(21) Application Number: 1995/ 000009
(22) Filing Date: 30/10/1996
(30) Priority data: 08/283,756 01/08/1994 US and 60/000,019 08/06/1995 US
(86) PCT data:
PCT/EP95/002864 20/07/1995
WO/1996/003877    15/02/1996
 
(73) Owner: RHONE-POULENC AGRICULTURE LIMITED of , Fyfield Road, Ongar, Essex CM5 OHW., United Kingdom
(72) Inventor: GAMBLIN, Alan; and HEWETT, Richard, Henry
(74) Agent/address for correspondence: Atkinson Cleasby & Satchu, Ralli House, P.O. Box 90121, Mombasa
 (54) Title: NEW HERBICIDAL COMPOSITIONS
(57) Abstract: The invention relates to compositions comprising: (a) a 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (I), wherein R, R1, R2 and n are as defined in the description and (b) a chloroacetamide herbicide; and their use as herbicides.
 
                                       
 New Herbicidal Compositions
Background of the Invention
This invention relates to new herbicidal compositions comprising a mixture of 4-benzoylisoxazoles and herbicidal chloroacetamide compounds. It also relates to the use of the mixture per se and to a method of controlling weeds.
Discussion of Prior Art
Chloroacetamides are a class of compounds which are known to be suitable for various herbicidal purposes. These include for example, 2-chloroacetamide herbicides such as alachlor (2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-methoxymethylacetanilide), acetochlor (2-chloro-N-ethoxymethyl-6' ethylacet-o-toluidide), metolachlor [2-chloro-6'-ethyl-N-(2-methow-1-methylethyl)acet-o-toluidide] and propachloro (2-chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide), each of which are known from the Pesticide Manual 9th edition (British Crop Protection Council);and dimethenamid [2-chloro-N-(2,4-dimethy1-3-thieny1)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methypethyl-acetamidej, which is disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 4,666,502; and are used pre-emergence or early post-emergence as herbicides for controlling annual grasses and broad leafed weeds in maize, peanuts, soybeans and other crops.
Herbicidal 4-benzoylisoxazoles are disclosed in the literature, for example see European Patent Publication Nos. 0418175, 0487357, 0527036 and 0560482.
Regarding the chloroacetamide herbicides metolachlor and acetochlor, these are typically used for the control of weeds found in maize (corn). The use of these compounds at high dose rates can present problems in terms of maize crop damage, as reported for example by Owen et al., Res. Rep. North Cent. Weed Science Society, Volume 46, page 316 (1989) the problem is particularly prevalent with acetochlor, and typically it is necessary to employ acetochlor in mixture with a safening agent.
Therefore an object of the invention is to provide aherbicidally effective mixture which allows chloroacetamide herbicides such as acetochlor or metolaclor to be used in reduced dose rates whilst retaining both crop selectivity and herbicidal efficacy.
As a result of research and experimentation it has been found that the use of a chloroacetamide herbicide, in combination with certain 4-benzoylisoxazole derivatives, extends the spectrum of herbicidal activity without loss of crop selectivity. Therefore the said combinations represent an important technological advance. The term "combination" as used in this specification refers to the "combination' of a 4-benzoylisoxazole herbicide and a chloroacetamide herbicide.
Surprisingly, in addition to this, it has been found that the combined herbicidal activity of certain 4-benzoylisoxazoles with certain chloroacetamide herbicides for the control of certain weed species e.g. Stair spp, Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retroflexus, Digitaria sanguinalis
Echinochloa crus-galli, Ipomoea purpurea and Helianthus annuus, and is greater than expected, without an unacceptable increase in crop phytotoxicity, applied pre-emergence (e.g. as a pre-emergence aqueous spray), i.e. the herbicidal activity of the 4-benzoylisoxazole with a chloroacetamide herbicide showed an unexpected degree of synergism, as defined by P.M.L Tammes, Netherland Journal of Plant Pathology, 2.0 (1964), pp 73-80 in a paper entitled "Isoboles, a graphic representation of synergism in pesticides".
In addition, the herbicidal activity of the 4-benzoylisoxazoles with a chloroacetamide herbicide shows synergism as defined by Limpel, LE, P.H. Schuldt and D. Lamont, 1962, 1.Proc. NEWCC 16, 48-53, using the formula:-
                                E=X+ Y-XY
                                               100
where
E = the expected percent inhibition of growth by a mixture of two herbicides A and B at defined doses.
X = the percent inhibition of growth by herbicide A at a defined dose.
Y = the percent inhibition of growth by herbicide B at a defined dose.
 
When the observed percentage of inhibition by the mixture is greater than the expected value E using the formula above the combination is synergistic.
This remarkable synergistic effect gives improved reliability in controlling these competitive weeds of many crop species, leading to a considerable reduction in the amount of active ingredient required for weed control.
A high level of control of these weeds is desirable to prevent:-
(1) yield loss, through competition and/or difficulties with harvest,
(2) crop contamination leading to storage and cleaning difficulties, and
(3) unacceptable weed seed return to the soil.
Description of the Invention
The present invention provides method of controlling the growth of weeds at a locus which comprises applying to said locus a herbicidally effective amount of:
(a) a 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (I):
                                    O

                        R
                      N                                (R2)n
                           O      R1 
                                         (I)
wherein
R is hydrogen or -CO2R3;
R1 is cyclopropyl;
R2 is selected from halogen, -S(0)pMe and C1-6 alkyl or haloalkyl,
n is two or three; p is zero, one or two; and
R3 is C1-4 alkyl; and
(b) a chloroacetamide herbicide.
Preferably the chloroacetamide herbicide is of formula (II)
Ar-N(R21)COCH2C1    (II)
wherein
R21 represents hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxy or alkoxyalkyl; alkenyl, haloalkenyl, alkynyl, haloalkynyl or acylamidoalkyl having up to six carbon atoms; Arrepresents thienyl or phenyl optionally substituted by one or more groups selected from the group consisting of halogen, amino, C1-6 alkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxy and alkoxyalkyl.
In formula (I) above, compounds in which n is three and the groups (R2)n occupy the 2,3 and 4-positions of the benzoyl ring; or in which n is two and the groups (R2)n occupy the 2 and 4-positions of the benzoyl ring are preferred.
 In formula (I) above, R2 is preferably selected from halogen (preferably chlorine or bromine), -S(0)pMe and trifluoromethyl. In formula (I) above, preferably one of the groups R2 is -S(0)pMe.

Compounds in which R is hydrogen are also preferred. The compounds of formula (I) of particular interest include the following:
A 5-cydopropy1-4-(2-methylsulphony1-4-trifluoromethyl)benzoylisoxazole;
B 5-cyclopropy1-4-(4-methylsulphonyl-2-trifluoromethyl)benzoylisoxazole;
C 4-(2-chloro-4-methylsulphonyl)benzoy1-5-cyclopropylisoxazole;
D 4-(4-chloro-2-methylsulphonyl)benzoy1-5-cycIopropylisocazole; and
E 4-(4-bromo-2-methylsulphonyl)benzoy1-5-cyclopropylisoxazole.
The letters A to E are assigned to these compounds for reference and identification hereafter.
Compound A is particularly preferred.
In formula (II) above, compounds in which R21 represents a group selected from methoxymethyl, ethoxymethyl, 2-methm-l-methylethyl and 1-methylethyl are preferred.
Compounds of formula (11) above in which Ar represents phenyl or thienyl optionally substituted by one or preferably two groups which may be the same or different selected from ethyl and methyl are also preferred.
 
The compound of formula (II) in which R21 represents methoxymethyl and Ar represents 2,6-diethylphenyl is known as alachlor.
The compound of formula (II) in which R21 represents ethoxymethyl and Ar represents 2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl is known as acetochlor.
The compound of formula (II) in which R21 represents 2-methoxy-1-methylethyl and Ar represents 2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl is known as metolachlor.
The compound of formula (II) in which R21 represents1-methylethyl and Ar represents phenyl is known as propachlor.
The compound of formula (II) in which R21 represents 2-methoxy-l-methylethyl and Ar represents 3-(2, 4-dimethypthienyl is known as dimetbenamid.
The amounts of the chloroacetamide herbicide and 4-benzoylisoxazole applied vary depending on the weeds present and their population, the compositions used, the timing of the application, the climatic and edaphic conditions, and (when used to control the growth of weeds in crop growing areas) the crop to be treated. In general, taking these factors into account, application
rates from 0.5g to 512g of 4-benzoylisoxazole and from 8 to 4000g of the chloroacetamide herbicide per hectare give good results. However, it will be understood that higher or lower application rates may be used, depending upon the problem of weed control encountered.

For the selective control of weeds at a locus of weed infestation which is an area used, or to be used, for growing of crops application rates from 05g to 512g of 4-benzoylisoxazole and from 20 to 4000g of the chioroacetamide herbicide per hectare are particularly suitable, preferably from 20 to 200g of 4-benzoylisoxazole and from 200 to 3000g of the chioroacetamide herbicide per hectare, even more preferably from 25 to 150g of 4-benzoylisoxazole and from 350 to 2000g (especially from 450g to 2000g) of the chloroacetamide herbicide per hectare.
Where the chloroacetamide herbicide is acetochlor, application rates of from 20g to 3000g per hectare of the chloroacetamide herbicide are preferred, more preferably from 150g to 2000g, even more preferably from 250g to 2000g per hectare, even more preferably from 350g to 1500g per hectare, from 450g to 1500g per hectare being particularly preferred and from 700g to 1200g per hectare is especially preferred.
Where the chloroacetamide herbicide is alachlor or metolachlor, application rates of from 40g to 4000g per hectare of the chloroacetamide herbicide are preferred, more preferably from 200g to 3000g per hectare, even more preferably from 350g to 2000g per hectare, with from 450g to 2000g per hectare being especially preferred.
When applied to a crop-growing area, the rate of application should be sufficient to control the growth of weeds without causing substantial permanent damage to the crop.
The method described above may be used to control a very wide spectrum of annual broad-leafed weeds and grass weeds in crops, e.g. maize, without significant permanent damage to the crop. The combined use described above offers both foliar and residual activity and consequently can be employed over a long period of crop development, i.e. from pre-weed pre-crop emergence to post-weed post-crop emergence. In the method according to this feature of the present invention the combined use of (a) and (b) to control grass weeds in maize is preferred. Preferably the herbicides are applied pre-emergence of the weeds and in particular pre-plant
incorporated.
In the method described above, the combined use of (a) and (b) in proportions from 1:8000 to 64:1 wt/wt of (a) : (b) is preferred, proportions from 1:150 to 1:1 wt/wt being particularly preferred, with proportions from 1:80 to 1:3 wt/wt even more preferred (from 1:80 to 1:23 being especially preferred).
By the term 'pre-emergence application' is meant application to the soil in which the weed seeds or seedlings are present before emergence of the crop. One example of a pre emergence application is known as 'pre-plant incorporated' (PPI), where the herbicide is incorporated into the soil before planting the crop. Another is where the herbicide is applied to the soil surface after sowing the crop. By the term 'post-emergence application' is meant application to the aerial or exposed portions of the weeds which have emerged above the surface of the soil. By the term 'foliar activity' is meant herbicidal activity produced by application to the aerial or exposed portions of the weeds which have emerged above the surface of the soil. By the term 'residual activity' is meant herbicidal activity produced by application to the soil in which weed seeds or seedlings are present before emergence of the weeds above the surface of the soil, whereby seedlings present at the time of application or which germinate subsequent to application from seeds present in the soil, are controlled.
In accordance with the usual practice (and a preferred method according to the present invention) a tank mix may be prepared prior to use by combining separate formulations of the individual herbicidal components.
The following non-limiting experiments illustrate the present invention.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE A
Seed of the various species of broad-leaf or grass weeds were sown in unsterilized clay loam soil in 7 centimeter by 7 centimetre plastic plant pots. The pots were watered and allowed to drain. The soil surface was then sprayed with ranges of concentrations of either the individual herbicide or mixtures of two herbicides in various proportions, dissolved in a 50:50 by volume solution of acetone and water, using a track sprayer set to deliver the equivalent of 2901/ha. All herbicides were used as unformulated technical materials except dirnethenamid, which was used as the commercial formulation” Trontiere" (trade mark), a flowable containing 900g/l active ingredient; and alachlor, which was used as "Lasso" (trade mark), an emulsifiable concentrate formulation containing 480g/l active ingredient.
Treated pots were placed at random in four replicate blocks per treatment for each plant species. The pots were held, in a glasshouse, standing on moist capillary matting, under lights and with overhead watering twice daily.
Two weeks after treatment the percent reduction in plant growth, compared to an untreated control, was assessed.
Mean percent reduction in plant growth was calculated for each treatment. Dose/mean response was plotted on Log concentration/Probability graph paper, and lines fitted by eye. For herbicide mixtures a dose/response line for the first herbicide was drawn for each dose rate of the second herbicide and a dose/response line for the second herbicide was drawn for each dose rate of the first herbicide. The doses representing a 90% reduction in plant growth (LD9O's) were read from these lines and plotted on graphs whose axes were dose rates of the two herbicides. The line joining these points is an Isobole i.e. a line joining points (mixtures) of equal activity, as described by P.M.I. Tammes, Neth. J. Plant Path. 70 (1964): 73-80. A line was also drawn joining the LD90's of the individual components of the mixture. This line represents the theoretical isobole if the effect of the two components is additive i.e. there is no interaction between them. Isoboles falling below this line indicate synergy between the components while lines lying above it indicate antagonism.
In the tables that follow 'dose' represents the dose rate in grammes per hectare of the active ingredient used and the figures for the weed control are percentages reduction in growth when
compared with the untreated controls.
 
Results:
Table Al
Pre-Emergence treatment of Setaria viridis with various mixtures of Compound A and metolachlor
Cpd.                                                 Metolachlor
A         Dose        0          2              4            8             16               32            64
            0              -           5              22.5       38.75      61.25         87.5          98
            0.5          15         27.5         36.25      38.75     70               91.25       98.25
            1             5           31.25      15            55          67.5            87.5         98.25
            2            47.5       20           17.5         35          66.25          78.75       100
            4            33.75     17.5        10            273        80               94.75       98.75
            8            38.75     25           42.5         55          71.25          95            985
            16          53.75     45           57.25       55           82.5           93.75       97.25
            32          70          75           80            76           95              96            99.75
            64         76           88.75      91.25       93.5        95             100           98.75
            128       88.75      96.25     98.75        97.25     100            100           100

Table A2
Pre-Emergence treatment of Amaranthus retroflexus with various mixtures of Compound A and metolachlor
CPd                                              Metolachlor
A           Dose        0           31.25       625         125        250       500
              0              -            46.25       53.75      35          85         95
              1             12.5       22.5         70           78.75     92.5      72.25
              2             51.25     43.75       80           66.25     97.25    100
              4             12.5        80           93.75      98.75     83.75     99.75
              8             87.5       93.75       97.5        91.25     95          98.75
             16           92.5        97            96.25      99.75     93.75     98.75
             32           99.75      8.75        98.75       100        100        100
             64           99.75      99.75      97            100        100        100


Table B1
Pre-Emergence treatment of Digit aria sagribtalis with various mixtures of Compound A and alachlor
Cpd.                                                       Alachlor          
Dose            0            4              8                  16               32           64              128
                 0              -             0            25              6.25         37.5       75           95
                1             18.75      15            22.5          15           10           75           82.5
                2             20           273          30             36.25      22.5        60           93.75
                4             33.75     38.75        30             50           38.75      71.25      96
                8             675        55             66.285      62.5        825         83.75      67
               16           50           94.75        87.25        94.5        71.25       85           95
               32           73.5        91.25        95             873         87.25       99.75      98.5
               64           87.5        91.25        93.75        99.75      99.75       95           100

Table B2
Pre-Emergence treatment of Echinochloa crus-galli with various mixtures of Compound A and alachlor

Cpd.                                                     Alachlor
A             Dose         0            4               8              16             32               64              128
                0               -             18.75        5              12.5         46.25           91.25         98.75
                1              12.5        123           10            17.5         77.5              91.25         99.75
                2              6.25         0              21.25       12.5         675               91.25         97.5
                4              1.25         15            323          11.25       77.5              95              90
                8              61.25       43.75      58.75        80            80                 100            100
               16            71.25        56.25      60             81.25       92.5              97.25         98.75
               32            75             73.5        85            90             97.5              983            100
               64            93.5          98.5        97.5         82.25        985               99.75         98.75
              128           93.75        95.75      100          96.25        97                 97.5           100
 

Table C1

Pre-Emergence treatment of Digitaria sanguinalis with various mixtures of Compound A and dimethenamid

 

Brief description of the drawings
Figure I is an LD90 isobole plot calculated from observed values (- • -) and a corresponding plot of expected additive values (dashed line) for a range of mixtures of Compound A with  metolachlor against the weed species Sataria viridis, produced from the results shown in Table Al;
 Figure II is an LD90 isobole plot calculated from observed values (- • -) and a corresponding plot of expected additive values (dashed line) for a range of mixtures of Compound A wit   metolachlor against the weed species Amaramhus retroflexus produced from the results shown in Table A2;
 Figure III is an LD90 isobole plot calculated from observed values (- - -) and a corresponding plot of expected additive values (dashed line) for a range of mixtures of Compound A with alachior against the weed species  Digitaria sanguinalis, produced from the results shown in Table Bl;
 Figure 1V is an LD90 isobole plot calculated from observed values (- • -) and a corresponding plot of expected additive values (dashed line) for a range of mixtures of Compound A with alachlor against the weed species  Echinochloa cuts-galli, produced from the results shown in Table B2;
 Figure V is an LD90 isobole plot calculated from observed values (- • -) and a corresponding plot of expected additive values (dashed line) for a range of mixtures of Compound A with dimethenamid against the weed speciesis, produced from the results shown in Table Cl;
Figure VI is an LD90 isobole plot calculated from observed values (- • -) and a corresponding plot of expected additive values (dashed line) for a range of mixtures of Compound A with dimethenamid against the weed species  Echinochloa crus-galli,
produced from the results shown in Table C2.
Figure VII is an LD90 isobole plot calculated from observed values (- • -) and a corresponding plot of expected additive values (dashed line) for a range of mixtures of Compound A with acetochlor against the weed species  Digitaria sanguinalis, produced from the results shown in Table Dl;
 
Figure VIII is an LD90 isobole plot calculated from observed values (- • -) and a corresponding plot of expected additive values (dashed line) for a range of mixtures of Compound A with acetochlor against the weed species Echinochloa produced from the results shown in Table D2.
The results above dearly demonstrate the excellent and unexpected degree of synergism obtained with the combination of the invention.
The isoboles produced from the above data, shown hereinafter 10    in Figures I to VIII were clearly type DI curves (Tammes op. cit,
Page 75, Fig 2) characteristic of synergism.
 
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE B
The experiments were carried out pre-emergence of the weed species at
(i) a research farm in Brazil with Compounds B and C 5    (each formulated as a wettable powder) and metolachlor, (formulated as a suspension concentrate); and
(ii) in research farms in the Mid West corn belt of the United States with compound D (formulated as a wettable powder) and metolachlor (formulated as a suspension concentrate).
A solution of the two active ingredients (al.) was mixed for one hour and applied at a spray volume of 231 liters/bectare to a 3 metre by 5 metre test plot comprising the weed species which were sown 2 days earlier. 3 replicates were performed. A control plot was sprayed with a solution not containing test compound. Visual assessment of phytotoxicity was made after 36 or 40 days from sowing each weed species based on a comparison with the control plot.

The tables below show the observed percentage control of the weed species by each combination, with the figure in brackets representing the predicted value using the Limpet formula. The dose rates are in grammes per hectare.
Table El
Pre-Emergence treatment o f Abutilon theophrasti with various mixtures of Compound B and metolachior
Cpd.                          Metolachlor
               Dose               0                 1000
B            0                      -                 0
              50                    75               98(75)

 

Table E2
Pre-Emergence treatment of Abutilon theophrasti with various mixture of Compound C and metolachlor

Cpd                                  Metolachlor
              Dose              0            1000
C           0                     -            0
             50                   73          95(73)


Table E3
Pre-Emergence treatment of Amaranthus retraexus with various mixtures of Compound D and metolachlor
1st Research Farm
Cpd.                                 Metolachlor
                Dose           0          480
D             0                  -          38
                37.5            38        85(62)


2nd Research Farm
Cpd.                        Metolachlor
           Dose           0        480
D        0                 -         78
          37.5             10       100(80)



3rd Research Farm
Cpd.                          Metolachlor
             Dose        0         480
D          0               -         91
             37.5         10       98(92)

 

Table E4
Pre-Emergence treatment of Setaria faberii with various mixtures of Compound D and metolachlor
1st Research Farm

Cpd.                          Metolachlor
              Dose             0           480
D           0                    -           91
              37.5              22         96(93)

2nd Research Farm

Cpd.                                    Metolachlor
             Dose            0         480
D          0                   -         93
             373              62       100(97)


3rd Research Farm
Cpd.                                   Metolachlor
               Dose          0              480
D            0                 -              84
               37.5           32            98(89)


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE C
The experiments were carried out pre-emergence of the weed species at various research farm locations throughout the Mid-West corn belt in United States of America with Compounds A and D (each formulated as wettable powders) and metolachlor (formulated as a 96% emulsifiable concentrate), alachlor (formulated as a 48% emulsifiable concentrate) and dimethenamid
(formulated as a 90% emulsifiable concentrate).
Various mixtures of the above 4-benzoylisoxazoles and chloroacetamides were weighed out and dissolved in water to give a solution containing the appropriate concentrations and ratios of active ingredients.
The solution was mixed for one hour and applied at a spray volume of 2311itres/hectare to a 3 metre by 5 metre test plot comprising the maize seed which were sown 2 days earlier. 3 replicates were performed. The experiments were performed using seven vanities of maize (except for the mixtures comprising alachior at 1120 g per hectare, where four varieties were used). A control plot was sprayed with a solution not containing test compound. Visual assessment of phytotoxicity was made 40 days after sowing the maize seeds based on a comparison with the control plot.
Table Fl
Field trial showing the biological interaction between Compound A and metolachlor on maize

   Cpd                                         Metolachlor
                Dose          0           560             1120
                0                 -            -                  -
A             78               0           0                  0
                105             0           0                  0


Table F2
Field trial showing the biological interaction between Compound A and alachlor on maize

Cpd                                    Alachlor
                Dose               0            560            1120
                0                      -             -                 -
A            78                     0            0                 0
               105                   0            0                 0
 

Table F3

Field trial showing the biological interaction between Compound A and dimethenamid on maize

Cpd                                         Dimethenamid
              Dose             0              336               672
              0                    -               -                    -   
A          78                   0              0                   0
             105                 0              0                   0

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE D

The following experiments were carried out pre-emergence of the weed species. Compound A, formulated as a wettable dispersible granule as described in Example 1 here below (750g per kilogram) and each acetochlor (used as the commercially available formulation "Harness" (trade mark), an emulsifiable concentrate containing 960g of acetochlor per kilogram, and which also contains the safening  agent flurazole, metolachlor (used as the commercially available formulation "Duelor" (trade mark), an emulsifiable concentrate emulsifiable concentrate containing 960g of metolachlor per kilogram), alachlor (used as the commercially available formulation "Lasso" (trade mark), an emulsifiable concentrate containing 480g of alachlor per kilogram) and dimethenamid (used as the commercially available formulation "Frontiere" (trade mark), a flowable containing 900g/1 active ingerident) were dissolved in water and sprayed at a volume rate of 187 liters/hectare on various test plots (10 square meters in area) either alone or in mixtures. The soil was a clay-loam, with a pH of 7, the experiments being conducted in June in Volga, Brookings, U.S.A. The various weed and crop species were drill sown and the various compositions were applied on the same day after drilling, Three replicates were performed and the efficacy of the various mixtures were determined by visual assessment of the percentage phytotoxicity in comparison with an untreated control. Assessment was made about 26 days after treatment. In the Tables which follow the dose is expressed in grammes per hectare and the figures in brackets represent the expected results according to the Colby formula.

Results
Table G1
Pre-emergence treatment of Abutilon theophrasti with
mixtures of Compound A and various chloroacetamide herbicides

Cpd                                       Acetochlor     Metolachlor     Alachlor     Dimethenamid
A            Dose              0      480                 480                   480             200
               0                     -      35                   10                     20               12
               37.5               93    100(95)           100(94)            97(94)    100(94)

Table G2
Pre-emergence treatment of Helianthus annuus with mixtures of Compound A and various chioroacetamide herbicides
Cpd                                  Acetochlor    Metolachlor    Alachlor    Dimethenamid
A        Dose    0               480                480                  480            200
           0          -                10                  3                      3               3
           37.5    18              38(26)           23(20)              32(20)      40(20)

Table G3
Pre-emergence treatment of Panicum miliaceum with mixtures of Compound A and various chloroacetamide herbicides
Cpd                                       Acetochlor    Metolachlor    Alachlor    Dimethenamid
A                Dose    0            480                480                  480            200
                   0          -             72                  52                    53              27
                   37.5    65           94(90)           93(83)              63(84)        99(75)
 

Table G4
Pre-emergence treatment of maize (Zea mays) with mixtures of Compound A and various chloroacetamide herbicides
Cpd                                Acetochlor    Metolachlor    Alachlor    Dimethenamid
A          Dose    0           480                480                  480            200
             0          -            0                     0                      0               0
            37.5      0           0                      0                      0               0

It will be understood that the results presented in Experimental Procedures B to D were obtained in field trials. Such trials generally represent a more rigorous test of herbicidal properties than tests in the greenhouse, where test plants are protected from the variable conditions to which they are inevitably subject in the open field. Because of the variability of conditions in field tests, it is generally more difficult to secure a clear showing of synergism than in greenhouse testing.
Nevertheless, herbicidal mixtures which demonstrate synergism in greenhouse testing must, if they are to be of commercial utility, be capable of demonstrating synergism under field conditions. i.e. under the conditions which will prevail when they are used by a farmer. The results obtained in the foregoing Examples therefore represent a particularly clear demonstration of synergism under practical conditions.
 
According to a further feature of the present invention there are provided herbicidal compositions comprising
(a) a 4-benzoylisoxazole derivative of formula I as defined 5    above; and
(b) a chloroacetamide herbicide; in association with, and preferably homogeneously dispersed in a herbicidally acceptable diluent or carrier and/or surface active agent.
The term "herbicidal composition' is used in a broad sense, to include not only compositions which are ready for use as herbicides but also concentrates which must be diluted before use. Preferably, the compositions contain from 0.05 to 90% by weight of 4-benzoylisoxazole and chloroacetamide herbicide.
Unless otherwise stated, the percentages and ratios appearing in this specification are by weight.
Generally a composition in which the ratio of (a):(b) is from 1:8000 to 64:1 wt/wt of (a) : (b) is preferred, proportions from 1:150 to 1:1 wt/wt being particularly preferred, with proportions from 1:80 to 1:3 wt/wt even more preferred (from 1:80 to 1:2.3 wt/wt being especially preferred).
The herbicidal composition may contain solid and liquid carriers and surface-active agents (e.g. wetters, dispersants or emulsifiers alone or in combination). Surface-active agents that may be present in the herbicidal compositions of the present invention may be of the ionic or non-ionic types, for example sulphoricinoleates, quaternary ammonium derivatives, products based on condensates of ethylene oxide with nonyl or octylphenols, or carboxylic acid esters of anhydrosorbitols which have been rendered soluble by etherification of the free hydroxy groups
by condensation with ethylene oxide, alkali and alkaline earth metal salts of sulphuric acid esters and sulphonic acids such as dinonyl and dioctyl-sodium sulphono-succinates and alkali and alkaline earth metal salts of high molecular weight sulphonic acid derivatives such as sodium and calcium lignosulphonates. Examples of suitable solid diluents or carriers are aluminium silicate, talc, calcined magnesia, kieselguhr, tricalcium phosphate, powdered cork, absorbent carbon black and clays such as kaolin and bentonite. Examples of suitable liquid diluents include water, acetophenone, cyclohexanone, isophorone, toluene, xylene, and mineral, animal, and vegetable oils (these diluents may be used alone or in combination).
Herbicidal compositions according to the present invention may also contain, if desired, conventional adjuvants such as adhesives, protective colloids, thickeners, penetrating agents,
stabilisers, sequestering agents, anti-caking agents, coloring agents and corrosion inhibitors. These adjuvants may also serve as carriers or diluents.

        The wettable powders (or powders for spraying) usually contain from 20 to 95% of 4-benzoylisoxazole and chloroacetamide herbicide, and they usually contain, in addition to the solid vehicle, from 0 to 5% of a wetting agent, from 3 to 10% of a dispersant agent and if necessary, from 0 to 10% of one or more stabilisers and/or other additives such as penetrating agents, adhesives or anti-caking agents and colourings.
         The aqueous suspension concentrates, which are applicable by spraying, are prepared in such a way as to obtain a stable fluid product (by fine grinding) which does not settle out and they usually contain from 10 to 75% of 4-benzoylisoxazole and chloroacetamide herbicide, from 03 to 15% of surface acting agents, from 0.1 to 10% of thixotropic agents, from 0 to 10% of
suitable additives such as antifoams, corrosion inhibitors, stabilisers, and water or an organic liquid in which the active substance is sparingly soluble or insoluble. Some organic solid substances or inorganic salts can be dissolved in order to assist in preventing sedimentation or as antifreeze for the water.
           Preferred herbicidal compositions according to the present invention are wettable powders and water-dispersible granules.
           Herbicidal compositions according to the present invention may also comprise a 4-benzoylisoxazole and a chloroacetamide in association with one or more other pesticidally active compounds and, if desired one or more compatible pesticidally acceptable diluents and carriers. Preferred herbicidal compositions according to the present invention are those which comprise a 4-benzoylisoxazole and a chloroacetamide herbicide in association with other herbicides.
        The following is an example of a composition suitable for use in the method of the invention. In the description that follows the following are trademarks: REAX, Sellogen, Barden, Aerosil, Igepal, Rhodafac, and Biodac.

Example C1
       The following composition was prepared as a wettable dispersible granule ( the percentages that follow are by weight):
4-Benzoylismazole (Compound A):                    75.0 %
REAX 88A (Surfactant):                                     10.0 %
Sellogen HR (Surfactant):                                    3.0 %
Barden AG-1 (Clay):                                           11.0 %
Aerosil R972 (Silica filler)                                  1.0 %

        This was used in tank mixtures with various chloroacetamide herbicides, as hereinbefore described.
          The compositions of the invention may be made up as an article of manufacture comprising a 4-benzoylisoxazole and a chloroacetamide herbicide and optionally other pesticidally active compounds as hereinbefore described, and as is preferred, a herbicidal composition as hereinbefore described and preferably a herbicidal concentrate which must be diluted before use, comprising the 4-benzoyliscocazole and chloroacetamide within a container for the aforesaid 4-benzoyliscocazole and chloroacetamide or a said herbicidal composition and instructions physically associated with the aforesaid container, setting out the manner in which the aforesaid 4-benzoylismcazole and chloroacetamide or herbicidal composition contained therein, is to be used to control the growth of weeds. The containers will normally be of the types conventionally used for the storage of chemical substances and concentrated herbicidal compositions, which are solids or liquids at normal ambient temperatures, for example cans and drums of plastics materials or metal (which may be internally-lacquered), bottles of glass and plastics materials; and when the contents of the container is a solid, for example a granular herbicidal composition, boxes, for example of cardboard, plastics material, metal or sacks. The containers will normally be of sufficient capacity, to contain amounts of the active ingredients or herbicidal compositions sufficient to treat at least one hectare of ground, to control the growth of weeds therein but will not exceed a size which is convenient for conventional methods of handling. Instructions will be physically associated with the container, for example by being printed directly thereon or on a label or tag affixed thereto. The directions will normally indicate that the contents of the container, after dilution if necessary, are to be applied to control the growth of weeds at rates of application from 0.5 to 512g of 4-benzoylisoxazole and from 8 to 4000g of chloroacetamide herbicide per hectare in the manner and for the purpose hereinbefore described.
          According to a further feature of the present invention, there  is provided a product comprising (a) 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula I above and (b) a chloroacetamide herbicide, as a combined preparation for simultaneous, separate or sequential use in controlling the growth of weeds at a locus.
        According to a further feature of the present invention, the compositions of the invention may be provided in a water soluble package comprising an isoxazole derivative of formula I as defined above and a chloroactetamide herbicide, wherein the isoxazole derivative and the chloroactetamide herbicide are not in physical contact with each other until the contents of the package are released. This offers the advantage that any incompatibility problems which may exist between the different components, for example if mixed together in high concentrations, are avoided. By way of example, the isoxazole derivative may be formulated as a wettable powder or water dispersible granule and sealed within a first water soluble package, and said first water soluble package may be placed within a second water soluble package containing the chloroacetamide herbicide, preferably formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate or emulsifiable gel . The second package is then sealed by known methods (for example by heat sealing to provide water soluble bag within a water soluble bag).
       Alternatively, the two components may be provided in adjacent compartments of the water soluble package. Examples of water soluble packages suitable for containing the compositions described above are found in European Patent Publication Nos. 0577702 and 0608340, and U.S Patent Nos. 5,222,595; 5224,601; 5,351,831; and 5,323,906.
        The processes described in European Patent Publication Nos. 0418175, 0487357, 0527036 and 0560482 may be used to prepare the compounds of formula (I).
Acetochlor was prepared according to the following procedure:
Synthesis of (N-chloroaceryl-N-ethoxymethy1-2-ethyl-6-methvianiline (acetochlor)
     Chloroacetyl chloride (84.8g) was added, over 20 minutes, to a solution of 2-ethyl-6-rnethylaniline (67.5g), glacial acetic acid (230m1), sodi um acetate (anhydrous 110.5g) in water (200m1) at such a rate that the reaction temperature did not exceed 100C. The resulting suspension was then stirred vigorously for 30 minutes at 100C (requiring the addition of further quantities of acetic acid and water to maintain fluidity). The suspension was filtered, the resulting solid was air-dried on the filter and was then recrystallised from ethanol/water to yield the N-chloroacetyI-2-ethyl-6- methylaruline as a colourless solid (58.7g), m.p. 122-1230C. This
 product (10.8g) was dissolved in toluene and added dropwise to a stirred mixture of N-chloroacety1-2-ethyl-6-methylaniline (21.2g), polyethyleneglycol-400 (8.Og), sodium hydroxide (16.0g in 15m1 water) and toluene at such a rate to maintain the reaction temperature at 10-150C for 2 hours.
       The resulting white suspension was diluted with water and stirred for a further 15 minutes. The aqueous layer was separated. The organic layer was washed with water to pH 7, dried over magnesium sulphate and evaporated to yield red oil (29.8g). The crude product was taken up in light petrol (b.p. 40-60) and the insoluble material was discarded. The solution was washed with water, dried and evaporated to yield acetochlor as an orange oil (20.4g), NMR (CDC13); 8H 12(m,6H), 2.28(s,3H), 2.57(m,211), 3.75(m,4H), 5.05(m,2H), 7.1-735(m,3H).
Note: This procedure is modified from the process described 10    in Zupancic et al., Synthesis (1982), page 942.
 
WHAT WE CLAIM IS:
1.    A method of controlling the growth of weeds at a locus which comprises applying to said locus a synergistic herbicidally effective amount of:
(a) a 4.-benzoylisoxazole of formula I:
 


 
Wherein R is hydrogen or -CO2R3, where R3 is as defined below;
R1 is cyclopropyl;
R2 is selected from halogen, -S(0)pMe and C1-6 alkyl or haloalkyl,
n is two or three; p is zero, one or two; and R3 is C1-4 alkyl; and
(b) a chloroacetamide herbicide.

2. The method according to Claim 1 in which the chloroacetamide herbicide is of formula (II):
Ar-N(R21)COCH2CI    (II) wherein R21 represents hydrogen, C1.6 alkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxy or alkoxyalkyl; alkenyl, haloalkenyl, alkynyl, haloalltynyl or acylamidoalkyl having up to six carbon atoms; A represents thienyl or phenyl, optionally bearing one or more groups selected from the group consisting of halogen, amino, Cl-6 alkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxy and alkoxyalkyl.
3. The method according to Claim 2 wherein: R21 is selected from the group consisting of methoxymethyl, ethoxymethyl, 2-methoxy-l-methylethyl and 1-methylethyl; and/or
Ar represents phenyl or thienyl optionally substituted by one or two groups which may be the same or different selected from ethyl and methyl.
 
4. The method according to Claim 2 or 3 wherein R21 represents methoxymethyl and Ar represents 2,6-diethylphenyl, which is alachlor.
5. The method according to Claim 2 or 3 wherein R21 represents ethoxymethyl and Ar represents 2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl, which is acetochlor.
6. The method according to Claim 2 or 3 wherein R21 represents 2-methoxy-1-methylethyl and Ar represents 2-ethy1-6- methylphenyl, which is metolachior.
7. The method according to Claim 2 or 3 wherein R21 represents 1-methylethyl and Ar represents phenyl, which is propachlor.
8. The method according to Claim 2 or 3 wherein R21 represents 2-methoxy-1-methylethyl and Ar represents 3-(2, 4-dimethyl) thienyl, which is dimethenamid.
9. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 8 wherein for the 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (I), R2 is Selected from halogen, -S(0)pMe and trifluoromethyl, wherein p is as defined in Claim1.
10. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 9 wherein for the 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (I) n is three and the groups (R2)n occupy the 2, 3 and 4-positions of the benzoyl ring.

11. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 9 wherein for the 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (I) n is two and the groups (R2), occupy the 2 and 4- positions of the benzoyl ring.
12. The method according to Claim any one of Claims 1 to11 in which one of the groups R2 is -S(0)pMe, wherein p is as defined in Claim 1.
13. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 9 wherein the 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (1) is: 5-cyclopropy1-4-(2-methylsulphony1-4-trifluoromethyl)-benzoylisoxazole;
5-cyclopropy1-444-methylsulphonyl-2-trifluoromethyl)-benzoylisoxazole;
4-(2-chloro-4-methylsulphonyl)benzoyl-5-cyclopropylismtazole;
4-(4-chloro-2-methylsulphonyl)benzoy1-5-cyclopropylisoxazole;
or 4-(4-bromo-2-methylsulphonyl)benzoy1- 5-cyclopropylisoxazole.

14. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 9 wherein the 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (I) is 5-cyclopropy1-4-(2-methylsulphony1-4-trifluoromethyl) benzoylisoxazole.
15. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 14 using from 0.5g to 512g of the 4-benzoylisoxazole and from 8 to 4000g of the chloroacetamide herbicide per hectare.
16. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 15 using from 0.5g to 512g of the 4-benzoylisoxazole and from 20 to 4000g of the chloroacetamide herbicide per hectare.

17. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 16 using from 20 to 200g of 4-benzoylisoxazole and from 200 to 3000g of the chloroacetamide herbicide per hectare.
18. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 17 using from 25 to 150g of 4-benzoylisoxazole and from 350 to 2000g of the chloroacetamide herbicide per hectare.
19. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 18 by pre-emergence application.
 
20.  The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 18 by pre-plant incorporation.
21. The method according to any one of Claims 1 to 20 in 5    which the locus is an area used, or to be used, for the growing of a crop.
22. The method according to Claim 21 in which the crap is maize.
23. A synergistic herbicidal composition comprising:
(a)  a 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula I as defined in Claim 1; and
(b)  a chloroacetamide herbicide; in association with a herbicidally acceptable diluent or carrier
and/or surface active agent.
24. The composition according to Claim 23 in which the chloroacetamide herbicide is of formula (II): Ar.NR21)COH2C  wherein Ar and R21 are as defined in any one of Claims 2 to4.
25. The composition according to Claim 24 wherein:R21 represents methoxymethyl and Ar represents 2,6-cliethylphenyl, which is alachlor;
R21 represents ethoxymethyl and Ar represents 2-ethy1-6- methylphenyl, which is acetochlor;
R21 represents 2-methoxy-1-methylethyl and Ar represents 2-30    ethyl-6-methylphenyl, which is metolachlor,
R21 represents 1-methylethyl and Ar represents phenyl, which is propachlor; or
R21 represents 2-methoxy-1-methylethyl and Ar represents 3- (2,4-dimethyl)thienyl, which is dimethenamid.
26. The composition according to Claim 23, 24 or 25 wherein for the 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (I) R2 is selected from halogen, -S(0)pMe and trifluoromethyl.
27. The composition according to Claim 23, 24 or 25 wherein for the 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (I) n is three and the groups (R2)n occupy the 2,3 and 4-positions of the benzoyl ring.
28. The composition according to Claim 23, 24 or 25 wherein for the 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (I) n is two and the groups (R2)n occupy the 2 and 4- positions of the benzoyl ring.
29. The composition according to Claim 25 wherein one of the groups R2 is -S(0)pMe.
30. The composition according to any one of Claims 23 to 26, 28 and 29 wherein the 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula (I) is 5-cyclopropy1-4-(2-methylsulphony1-4- trilluoromethyl)benzoylisoxazole.
31. The composition according to any one of Claims 23 to 30 in which the ratio of (a):(b) is from 1:8000 to 64:1 wt/wt.
32. The composition according to any one of Claims 23 to 31 in which the ratio of (a):(b) is from 1:80 to 1:3 wt/wt.
33. A product comprising a synergistic herbicidally effective amount of: (a) a 4-benzoylisoxazole of formula I:

 

wherein R is hydrogen or -CO2R3, where R3 is as defined below; R1 is cyclopropyl; R2 is selected from halogen, -S(0)pMe and C1.6 alkyl or haloalkyl; n is two or three; p is zero, one or two; and R3 is C1-4 alkyl; and (b) a chloroacetamide herbicide; as a combined preparation for simultaneous, separate or sequential use in controlling the growth of weeds at a locus. 

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