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(21)Application Number: KElP/ 2009/ 000997
   
(22) Filing Date: 26/11/2009

(73) Owner:REV. NELSON MUGI KARIUKI of P.O. BOX 2220, KITALE., Kenya

(72) Inventor:NELSON MUGI KARIUKI of P.O. BOX 2220,KIT ALE, Kenya

(54)Title: MATERIALS AND PROCESS FOR UPSCALING AGRICULTURAL BIOMAS INTO BIODYNAMIC ORGANIC FERTILIZER.

(57) Abstract: The material and process of upscaling solid and semi solid agricultural and industrial biomas into a biodynamic organic fertilizer is disclosed. The invention involves a process consisting of the following steps: I. Collection of agricultural and industrial biomas, 2. Placing them in layers in a specified formula for desired nutrients ratio, 3. Insulating them against bleaching, 4. Applying Biodynamic preparations into the Biomas heaps in order to speed the fermentation process, 5. Maintaining the temperature between 40-70° C for 14-21 days, 6.Testing ofNitrogen level to ensure that it is at least 5%.

7. Drying, fortifying, pelleting and packaging.
 

ABSTRACT
MATERIAL AND PROCESS OF UPSCALING SOLID AND SEMI SOLID AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL BIOMAS INTO A BIODYNAMIC ORGANIC FERTILIZER

The material and process ofupscaling solid and semi solid agricultural and industrial biomas into a biodynamic organic fertilizer is disclosed. The invention involves a process consisting of the following steps: !.collection of agricultural and industrial biomas, 2. placing them in layers in a specified formula for desired nutrients ratio, 3. insulating them against bleaching, 4. applying Biodynamic preparations into the Biomas heaps in order to speed the fermentation process, 5. maintaining the temperature between 40-70° C for 14-21 days, 6.testing of Nitrogen level to
ensure that it is at least 5%. r.Drying, fortifying, pelleting and packaging.
A


TITLE: MATERIALS AND PROCESS OF UPSCALING OF SOLID AND SEMI-SOLID

AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL BIOMAS INTO A BIODYNAMIC ORGANIC FERTILIZER

Technical Field

The invention relates to a process for the upscaling of solid and semi-solid Agricultural and industrial Biomas into an organic fertilizer by use of the Biodynamic method.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION


Organic Farming is use of natural resources such as manure in agriculture. Organic farming has been practiced from time immemorial. It uses J..eekecl at the compost and animal manures for providing the plant nutrients. A search by Kenya industrial property institute shows that there was no claim on the local data base. On the WIPO database, there are five related but different invention:

What the five inventions Discloses:-

1.    W02007/0976- A process for the conversion of liquid waste biomas into a fertilizer product published on 30th August 2007. This deals with organic residual products of Biogas systems and is different from the present invention.

2.    W02008/080394 method and device for the treatment of organic residual products of biomas systems. It is a treatment for cleaning kitchen and greasy water ways. It is different from the present invention.

3.    W0/2003/093199 - An organic fertilizer and the manufacturing process thereof from the polish patent description No. 179311 - This is a fertilizer consisting of brown coal, possibly of peat and mineral components is known. This is different from the present invention.

4.    WO /20011096259- sprayable Organic Fertilizer. This uses denatured soya protein to provide Nitrogen. This is different from the present invention.
 

5.    W0/2007/097612- Process for the conversion of liquid waste biomas into a fertilizer product. This process uses liquid biomas. Liquid waste biomas from the holding or source facility is discharged into a lagoon ( or pool of liquid waste) where it undergoes natural anaerobic digestion. After retention for sometime in the lagoon system, the waste water (or liquid fertilizer) is applied to Agricultural land through spray or irrigation water. This claim is also different from the present invention.

Comparison of Inorganic and organic fertilizers.


USE OF INORGANIC FERTILIZERS


The Inorganic Nitrogen salts or Urea when applied to the soil produces Low Nitrate or Ammonia ions that freely leach into the ground water. It pollutes the ground water, Aquifers, Bore holes, Rivers, Streams, Lakes and World Oceans.

The inorganic Fertilizers are highly water soluble and are easily leached by Rain water or irrigation water. The organic fertilizers are water insoluble (or slowly soluble) and are held by Humus colloidal particles and not easily leached.

THE EFFECTS OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER

1.    Leached inorganic fertilizers; pollutes rivers, aquifers, underground water, lakes, oceans.

2.    Increased Nitrogen and Plant nutrition promotes excessive plant growth in rivers, ponds, lakes and oceans e.g. water hyacinth.

3.    The water dissolved oxygen is decreased. This reduces fish population in lakes and

rivers.

4.    Recreational bodies of water become weed infested, unsightly and unusable e.g. lake Victoria, Lake Nakuru, Lake Naivasha etc.

5.    The inorganic fertilizers makes the soil acidic and destroys the soil microorganisms.

6.    The decreased soil microflora increases a survival capacity of Disease pathogens.


USE OF ORGANIC MANURES
 

Additional efforts have focused upon using organic manures from plant and animal sources which unfortunately provides low Nitrogen in a slowly released Form. However, organic manures have met with limited acceptance due to the following difficulties as follows:

1 . Low amount of Nitrogen and other Nutrients which are only slowly available to the plants.

2.    Unacceptable odours.

3.    Lack of application convenience.

4.    Not able, to .meet specific plant I crop needs.

5.    Unethical Biomas source e.g. sludge.


Organic fertilizers

There has been a great need to develop an organic fertilizer that will provide a substantial amount of Nitrogen for target plant communities at a rate commensurate with plant nutritional needs and desired cultural practices and which will enhance the Ecosystem of the soil within which the target plants/crop are growing and that will not be leached from the soil.

Based on the above demand for organic fertilizer solution and supported by a soil fertility Baseline survey (Trans-Nzoia) conducted by Moi University, Cenart -Consort (NGO), MOA, KARl, KENYA Seed, KEPHIS, Western Seed Co. and Farmer representatives (April, May 2005), The Rutuba Organic Fertilizer has been developed to address the above diverse requirements. The Rutuba Development has involved local and National collaborators and stakeholders. The Rutuba Organic Fertilizer Research and Development continues.

SOURCES OF PLANTS MINERAL NUTRITION ELEMENTS


Traditionally within a period of under two centuries since discovery of Inorganic fertilizers) the major plant nutrition mineral elements viz Nitrogen, phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium and Sulphur are supplied in the form of Inorganic fertilizers. It has been assumed that, the other macro and micro plant mineral elements are available in the soil. This is only true where the soil organic matter is high in the soil.

SOURCES OF THE MINERAL ELEMENTS

1.    Phosphates - The main source is rock phosphate. The main phosphates mines like Morocco are estimated to last another 30 years and they will run out.

2.    Potassium - Muriate of potash - mainly mined in Germany and Canada. Some biomas is rich in potash.

3.    Calcium  -we have big deposits oflime

4.    Sulphur- from mineral rock

5.    Nitrogen - Nitrogen is a critical plant nutrition element. It is required in large amounts. It is needed in every cell, for good greenness

(chlorophyll) and rapid new growth. Unless it is held within the organic colloidal particles (where it is insoluble) Nitrogen is quickly leached. In its soluable form, Nitrogen is very unstable due to denitrification. Sometime you have it and sometime you don't.
All source of Nitrogen is atmospheric air which contains 78% Nitrogen by volume.


Borrowing from the Haber and Bosch method for extracting high volumes of Nitrogen from the air by chemical process and borrowing from Nitrogen fixing bacteria where they are able to fix about 40 Kgs of Nitrogen per acre per year with only about 1 million bacteria per gm ( ml) ( lcm3) of soil, I set to research on a Biodynamic microorganisms (BDM) with over 2 billion microorganisms per ml (gm). I then use this BDM- high population of microbes to fix Air Nitrogen and upscale the Nitrogen percentage during the Agricultural and industrial Biomas fermentation.

Objects of the invention


The object of the present  invention is to upscale the nutritional  levels  of manure  and other

agricultural    and    industrial    biomas.


Another object of the present invention is to improve the handling of the organic manures due to reduced moisture content.

Another object of the present invention is to avail a fertilizer media that can be fortified with other mineral elements required by the plants.
 
Yet another object of the present invention is to avail a fertilizer media that can be pelleted.


Finally, another object of the present invention is to increase soil Nitrogen Fixation.





SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION


The present of invention concerns materials and process of upscaling of solid and semi-solid Agricultural and industrial Biomas by biodynamic method to produce an organic fertilizer.

INVENTION- MATERIALS AND PROCESS OF MAKING BIO-DYNAMIC MICRO-ORGANISMS- BDM

Proportion of materials

Mixture

o 50 litres of fresh ruminant dung o 50 litres of whey from cheese o 10 litres of moltases

o    50 gms of yeast

o    20 litres of rhizobium extract liquid

o    20 litres of mycorrhizae extract liquid


Process:

Put the mixture in a 200litres drum.  The drum should have an air tight seal.

1.    Take a 200 litres drum and clean it thoroughly.

2.    Put in it 50 litres of fresh ruminant- dung

3.    Add 50 litres of whey from cheese and mix thoroughly

4.    Add 10 litres ofmoltases and mix the mixture thoroughly.

5.    Add 50 gms of yeast extract and mix thoroughly to be homogenous.

6.    Add 20 litres ofmycorrhizae extract. Mix thoroughly.
 

5
7.    Add 20 litres of rhizobium extract. Mix thoroughly to a homogenous state by staring the mixture with long drum stick. Mix in a counter clockwise direction for 30 minutes.

8.    Make a !em hole in the drum seal or stopper. Seal tightly with the seal or stopper.

9.    Connect the drum to a 5 litter water bubbler with a 1cm air hose or tube

10.    Let it stand for 21 days

11.    a)  Analyse for micro organisms count

b)    Plant mineral elements


Microbial population- NAL- Lab No. 236109

1.    Bacterial- 1.20 x 109 cells I ml!gm

2.    Actinomycetes- 3.69 x 107 cellslml/gm

3.    Fungi-1.13 x 106 cellslml/gm

This BDM composition is about 10 billion cells I ml!gm our standard is to produce a BDM with about 2 billion cellslgrn!ml

This BDM is mixed with Agricultural Biomas and with sufficient organic matter and sufficient air Nitrogen is able to upscale the fixed Nitrogen biodynamically by about 50 times or more ( e.g. 0.2% N-10% N). Our KEBS commitment is 3% N.

BENEFICIAL OR BIODYNAMIC MICRO ORGANISMS

Armies of beneficial bacteria and other microorganisms are essential contributes to the life cycles that keep plants alive and thriving. Soil must support them (provide organic matter) and take part in the symbiotic relationships among plants and the micro organisms.

In good soil there should be about 1 million beneficial microbes (1cm3). These billions of bacteria and other soil organisms feed only on dead materials. Under the ground they prey mostly on dead plant materials, but also on dead animal organisms. 1 kg of soil can contain tens of billions of bacteria. Resist using non-organic fertilizers or substances into your soil without
 
understanding their field effects. If you affect one reaction in the soil negatively it may affect a hundred or even a hundred thousand other negative reactions.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION- DISCLOSURE

The invention relates to the process of upscaling of solid and semi-solid Agricultural and industrial Biomas by biodynamic method to produce an organic fertilizer.

ARTIFICAL FERTILIZERS- NITROGEN

When it appeared necessary to manufacture Inorganic - Fertilizers at the beginning of the 20th century (1913) the scientists found that they could mine other mineral elements except Nitrogen. They had to turn to capturing the air Nitrogen and turn it to Ammonia.

HABER AND BOSCH METHOD


This is a process which uses coal heated ovens where you drive through at high pressure steam and atmospheric air. The two go through a chemical process producing Ammonia.

The air over every area of land contains tons of unusable Nitrogen. 78% of the air is Nitrogen. Air pressure is caused by the weight of air. Air pressure at sea level is 14.7 pounds per sq. inch or 21, 168 lbs per sq. ft. This translates to 43,560 tons of air per acre or about 32,670 tons of Nitrogen over one acre of land upto Troposphere (10 miles height)

By nature the leguminous plants have bacteria (rhizobium) in their root- nodules which fix soil air Nitrogen. When soils have enough organic matter with sufficient soil air, the bacteria fix enough nitrogen compounds for both bacterial and plants. Aside from these symbiotic bacteria living in nodules, there are free living bacteria (rhizobium) both aerobic and anaerobic which transform up to 20 kgs Nitrogen per acre by using organic matter carbohydrates and soil air Nitrogen (This is equivalent to over 2 x 50 kg bags of DAP)

Borrowing from the Haber and Bosch method for extracting high volumes of Nitrogen from the air by chemical process and borrowing from Nitrogen fixing bacteria where they are able to fix about 40 Kgs of Nitrogen per acre per year with only about 1 million bacteria per gm ( ml) (

lcm3) of soil, I set to research on a Biodynamic microorganisms (BDM) with over 2 billion microorganisms per ml (gm). I then use this BDM- high population of microbes to fix Air Nitrogen and upscale the Nitrogen percentage during the Agricultural and industrial Biomas fermentation.

PHASE ONE.

BIO-DYNAMIC METHOD.


We collect Biomass of different plants and plant products (legume, grass, sawdust, vegetables, sugarcane baggage ) and animal products (Blood meal bone meat fish meal, feathers guano, entrails).

1.    We place in layers, carefully partitioned amounts of designed raw materials and compost according to specified formula for desired nutrients ratio. The materials are put in layers of one foot. Each layer is sprayed with a diluted BDM (Biodynamic microorganisms) which I manufacture to hasten the fermentation rate and upscale the Nitrogen content

2.    Protect the compost against the bleaching and the drying effects of the suns rays. Cover the compost to prevent lose of nitrogen , water and to maintain the temperature. Ensure proper aeration. The process in making compost is to loose as few nutritional

elements as possible.


3.    We inset Biodynamic preparations into the Biomas heaps in order to speed the fermentation and preserve high manure values.

4.    The fermentation process raises the temperature to about 150% (70°C). In one to two months the Biomas is completely broken down to humus . (Humus- This is an advance level from compost which is obtained by humification process).

Humas is a more uniform looking substance which is amorphous substance in a fine state. It is colloid particles in humus give rise to electrochemical phenomena through which the
 

nutritive elements present in insoluble form in the soil are solubilized and rendered available to plants.

Naturally a colloid is insoluable but the colloidal particles in humus have an effect on nutrients present in the soil that (by electrochemical phenomena) transforms them into soluable substances.

5.    In each compost layer we add organic lime which arrests the Nitrogen, and flocculates the organic matter, reducing the loss of colloidal humus thus deepening the colour.

PHASE-TWO


When the Biomas compost has been turned black and from compost to humus: we dry it in the

shed or by dry air:-

1.    When dry with about 15%moiture content we screen or sift it with a coffee tray wire.

2.    Control of pathogens and chemical residue effect:

we use two methods to handle control of pathogens and chemical residue effects. a). Use of extracted organic Biocide sterilizers. We mix our formulated

extracted Biocide sterilizers and mix it with formulated BDM (Biodynamic microorganisms) at the ratio of 1:1. We spread the humus in one foot layers and thoroughly wet (until a bit of water appears between fingers when squeezed ) with the mixture.


b).    Put the sifted humus in a designed constructed heated hot house

or oven. At a controlled temperature heat the humus to a temperature of 150° f (70°C) maintain the temperature for one hour. The oven to have turning devices and a blower to drive in air.

The two methods (a) and (b) will break down the chemical residues and kill resistant animal pathogens e.g typhoid, paratyphoid, dysentery , salmonella staphylococcus , pseudomonas shigella, hepatitis etc After subjecting the humus to either of the two methods above, it enters phase - three.
 
PHASE-THREE

After sterilizing the humus; it is subjected to four laboratory analysis Tests:

1.    Mineral chemical analysis Tests

a). We measure the ph requirements ph- 6-7.5

b). Percentage of macro and micro mineral elements Bureau of standards established Mark levels.

Available Nitrogen- 3%, Available phosphorus P205- 5% Potassium (K)- 2%, Calcium (cao)- 5%.

2.    Phytosanitary Tests- Test for detection of any human and animal disease pathogens. They shouldn't be present e.g salmonella typhoid, staphylococcus, pseudomonas , shigella,
hepatitis etc.

3.    Metal Toxicity

There should not be any harmful metal toxicity. Toxicity rises with the mineral elements or metals reacting with soil salts. Avoid toxic metals- test -lead., Arsenic alluminium, Iron. Etc.

4.    Mycroorganisms - count tests.

A good soil should have a minimum of about 1 million microorganisms per gram of soil. Stable mature forest soils have about 1 billion microbes per gram of soil. Rutuba fertilizer

has over 100 million microbs per gram. With 1 million microbes per gram a healthy soil bacterial (rhizobium) will fixed over 20kgs ofNitroen per acre /year qui valent to 110 kgs ofD.A.P. Unlike D.A.P the 20kgs nitrogen is not easily leached.
The microorgamsims counted- (1) Bacteria (2) actinomycetes (3) fungi.


FORTIFYING THE TESTED ORGANIC FERTILIZER


After the test results are obtained, fortification is necessary to bring the Rutuba organic fertilizer to the declared or approved levels:

(1).    Mineral elements. -

a).    Phosphorus - Correction is done by adding rock phosphate, Bone

meal,  blood meal and other material stated above.

b).    Calcium- Correction is done by using calcium oxide or any of

lime mineral rocks.

c).    Potassium - Potassium Correction is done by adding wood,

banana and cobs ashes or manure.

d).    Nitrogen - Nitrogen correction is done by a repeated biodynamic

fermentation process

by feeding bacterial and driving through air nitrogen.

Addition of blood meal, chicken by- products, guano, soya

beans, cotton and mucuca biomas

e).    Other mineral elements are required in minute levels and are

sufficient in the Rutuba prepared fertilizer.

f).    Ph -correction - If ph is lower than Ph -6 lime is used to build it

to ph -7.5. This is a rare case for Rutuba organic fertilizer enjoys a Ph of about 6.5- Ph-8


2.    Phytosanitary Tests.

If any pathogens are detected, the Rutuba fertilizer is subjected to a further treatment with the plant biocides or heat treatment.

3.    Metal toxicity- if metal toxicity is found bases are used to neutralize the toxicity

4.    Microorganism count Test.


If microorganism count falls below 100 million microbes per gram ofRutuba, the fertilizer is subjected to a further treatment with BDM.

PACKING RUTUBA ORGANIC FERTILIZER. When the Rutuba organic Fertilizer has been fortified as above and meets the bureau of standards standard mark ofN- 3% , P2 05 -5% potassium (k) -2% and calcium oxide - 5% and when it has been well dried , it is bagged. The packaging is in Bags of 5kgs 10 kgs, 25kgs and 50kgs. The Bags are marked with KESS-

MARK.
CLAIMS


I    claim:

1.    Materials for upscaling of solid and semi-solid Agricultural and industrial Biomas into an organic fertilizer by use of the Biodynamic method

2.    Materials and their proportions for making the Biodynamic microorganisms high count of over

2    billion microbs per milligram (ml) or gram comprising:

i)    45-55 litres of fresh ruminant dung

ii)    45-55litres of milk whey from cheese

iii)    8-12 litres of molasses

iv)    3-7 gms of yeast

v)    15-25 litres of rhizobium extract liquid

vi)    18-22 litres of mycorrhizae extract liquid


3.    A process of Treating the above materials to arrive at a microbial count of above 2 billion microbes per ml or per gram. Involving steps:

i)    Take a 200 litres drum and clean it thoroughly.

ii)    Put in it 50 litres of fresh ruminant- dung

iii)    Add 50 litres of whey from cheese and mix thoroughly

iv)    Add 10 litres ofmollases and mix the mixture thoroughly.

v)    Add 50 gms of yeast extract and mix thoroughly to be homogenous.

vi)    Add 20 litres ofmycorrhizae extract. Mix thoroughly.

vii)    Add 20 litres of rhizobium extract. Mix thoroughly to a homogenous state by staring the mixture with long drum stick. Mix in a counter clockwise direction for 30 minutes.

viii)    Make a 1cm hole in the drum seal or stopper. Seal tightly with the seal or stopper.

ix)    Connect the drum to a 5 litter water bubbler with a !em air hose or tube

x)    Let it stand for 21 days
 

4. A process of Treating the above materials as in claim 3 wherein the Microbial population - Bacterial- 1-1.50 x 109 cells I m!lgm, Actinomycetes- 3-4.5 x I 07 cells/ml/gm, and Fungi- 1-3

x    106 cells/ mVgm

5.    Use of materials and process for upscaling solid and semi-solid Agricultural and industrial Biomas into a fertilizer by as in any one of the above claims and by applying Biodynamic method.

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