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(11) Patent Number: KE 410

(73)0wner:COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH of Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110 001, India

(21)Applica:tion Number: KE/P/2003/ 000642       

(72) Inventor: INDRANI, Dasappa of Central Food TechnologicalResearch Institute, Mysore, 570013 Karnataka, India;RAJIV, Jyotsna of Central Food Technological ResearchInstitute, Mysore, 570013 Karnataka, India; MANOHAR,(30) Priority data:        Ragu, Sai of Central Food Technological ResearchInstitute, Mysore, 570013 Karnataka, India and RAO,

(86)  PCT data    Gandham, Venkateswara of Centra] Food Technological PCTIIN03/00044l    3!11212003    Research Institute, Mysore, 570013 Karnataka, India. WO 20051063026 AI    14/0712005       

(22) Filing Date: 31112/2003       

(74) Agent/address for correspondence:Hamilton  Harrison & Mathews, ICEA Building,Kenyatta Avenue, P.O. Box 30333-00100, Nairobi

(54)Titie: FINGER MILLET BREAD FORMULATION AND A PROCESS FOR PREPARING THE SAME.

(57) Abstract: The present invention relates to finger millet bread fonnulation and process for preparing the same.

MILLET BREAD FORMULATION AND A PROCESS FOR PREPARING

THE SAME

FIELD OF THE INVENTION:

The present invention relates to millet bread formulation and a process fur preparing

the same.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:

Sorghum, baira. maize, ragi (finger millet), small mill!'15 and barley constitute the

major coarse cereals grown in India. They are rich in minerals predominantly grown

lO .in rainfed areas in semi-arid and arid zones. The production of coarse cereals fur 2001-02 was 33.94 million tons. The production ofragi or finger millet was 26.60

1akb tomes• and that of sorghum (jowar) was 7.06  million tons.  (Vikas  Singhal.

In<fum Agriculture 2003, Economic Dala Resean:h Centre, New Delhi, pg: 153). Calcium and phosphorous conleDI is specifically bigh in most of the coame cereals
!5 as against rice and wheat The calcium and phosphorous content of rice and wheat are 10 mg, 160 mg and 41 mg, 306 mg (per 100 g) respectively. The calcium and phosphorous coiltent (mg /lOOg) of sorghum and finger millet are 25, 222 and 344, 283 respectively. (C. Gopalan et aJ !982. Nutritive value of Indian Foods. National Institute of nutritional, Hyderabad, IDdia). Ragi grains are also ri~b in important
20    "itam.ins viz. thiamine. riboflavin and niacin. It is of interest to .~te that lower incidence of canliovascular diseases, duodenal ulcer and hyperglycemia are reported among regular l'agi consume!S. (Mangal R.ai. The Hindu Survey of Indian

.>..griculture, 2002, Pg 61):

;n...ea~: flour is •abasic ingredient in bakery products. The protein qnality of wheat is

25    inferior to that of most cereals. This is primarily. because of .the low lysine, methionine and threonine content of wheat proteins. Also, the major portion of minerals and vitamins getS partially or totally removed during milling. The inferior nutritional quality of wheat flour gets accentuated further in refining of flour. Use of

non wheat cereals like ragi, sorghum and maize has nutritional advantages in bakery

JO products. Most bakery products are low. in quantity and quality of protc;ins, os well as poor in minerals and B - grnnp vitamins. (Chavan JK and Kadam SS 1993.

~utritinnal enrichment of bakery products by supplementation with non wheat flours. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 33(3). 189- 226). The ragi

protein has a well balanced amino acid profile and is a good source of methionine,

c:ystine and lysine. Products such as bread, biscuits, c09kies etc., can serve as good

vehicles for•carrying the added proteins to target populations for use in combating

the protein malm;lri!i"" ='lJ!ent in maDY parts of the world. Proteill ='~ of

the  bakery  products  can  be  achieved  by  using  non  wheat  protein  sow:=;  like

sorghum, ragis, oat etc. as they are cheap supplements.

Protein ingredients have a role in the target marl<et and a wide variety of functional and nutritional cb.aracteristic of manufactured fuod products. 1be pro duelS enriched most frequently are breads, biscuits, cookies• and crackers. The meal and protein•

10    products of legumes, oil seeds and non wheat cereals are promising malerials fur nutritional enrichment of bakery products. Although the flour.; and protein produciS
of legumes, oil seeds and non wheat cereals do not meet atl these requirements fur

furtification, suitable modifications in processing, and use of surfacbmiS and other

ingreditniS  in the formulalion, have significantly helped to produce products of

15    . acceptable quality. tiom ......,;,. flour containing a suitable proportion of such nO.n wheat ve,seta~>le products. 1be 11011 wheat cemll flours and o1her gi3in processing by products are used to repia<:e part of wheat flour in prepanlioo of variety lxeads or cookies either when the wheat is in short supply, when it is desired to promote the

utilisatioo of non wbest cereals and tbeic by ~ among the larger segment of

~o  populations or when it is desired to improve the protein content in the product.

Reference may be made llerti to patent No. AT 395365B by Johann (1992) wherein

the patent discloses a process fur producing bread having a content of legumes.. tagi

and barley, a paste being produced by mixing equall"'J1Sof broad beans. ;e:n;Js,

ragis and rolled barley, which are unground and boiled after soaking for 12 hours in

25    water, the paste is added to the bread mixture which coosists of half wheat flour aod half brown wheat flour. The drawback is that the raw material used is not 100% ragi flour (finger millet flour). Barley, broad beans and lentils do not fonn the ingredients of the present invention.

Reference  may be made  here  to  patent  No.  CN  1254517  by  Zhaozbeog (2000)

;o    wherein a principal  food  made up of ragi and sorghum grains and its p~

technology  is  disclosed.  1be  principal  food  including  dried  noodles.  ordinary

noodles. instant noodles. steamed bread. bre-.Ki~ pan cake etc. is made: up of refined
 
ragi flour, or refined sorghum grain flour or their mixture (40 to 60 wt.%), alpharagi flour or alpha sorghum grain flour or their mixlme (5 - 45 wt.%) and glutelin powder (3 - 15 wt.%) through refining the ragi flour, sorghum grain flour, bean
iJOlVde:'-etc..  or dre:r- __:_ __ .em! alpha flcur or their m.i:(ture~ mixing th:::! '~-~th

water, ageing and making finished fuod. The drawba.;k here is that the patent •relates

to  the  making  of  mixture  of  flours  of grains  fur  product  preparation  which

~pally consists of refined  grains and not the  use of 100% ragi  flour fur  the

preparation of bread only.

Patent CN  1304661  (2001) deals with a composite multi element nutritive  flour

1~ which is made up of wheat as main raw material, com, soya bean and ragi through screetring, grinding, proportiODa! mixing and pulverizing. It can be made into dried

noodles and dough slices. The drawback here is thai wheat is the main raw mal£rial

whereas in the present invention ragi flour funns   the main raw material fur the

•preparation of bread and not dried noodles and dough slices.

15    Rererence may be made here to CN 1194786 (1998) which deals _with the preparation of ragi bread series fealuring use of ragi as part of its raw materials fur more rich nutrients and unique taste. The drawback here is that ragi funns a part of the raw material and not the main raw materiallhat is 100,% ragi flour used fur the
~ion of bread in the present invention.

=.J    'kii:rence may be made beie to  application No.  CN  19990251477U  1999iE2

v;berein process fur the preparation of steamed stuffed bread of com, sorghum etc. is

disclosed.  The drawback  here  is •that  it is a steamed  bread  consisting of com.

""l!htim etc.  as a stuffing and not baked bread which is made of I 00 % ragi "'""'"

with out any stuffing.

25    Reference may be made here to Elkhalif.t and EI-Tinay 2002. Effect of cysteine on bakery )lroducts from wheat- sorghum blends. Food chemistry 77,!33-137 wherein effect of cysteine on bakery products from wheat-sorghum blends is discussed.
:!sing • chemical dough d..'"<'e!opme:rt;nc:bx! fur lm:3d ,., ~""'"'•- ~hi~ :""""""':

bread could be produced by adding 10 %sorghum along with 60 ppm cysteine to

}(I    ._."beat flour. A high quality biscuit can be prepared by addition of 20 °{, sorghum

ilour :md cysteine 60 ppm   10 gm flour to wheat flour. The drawback is that 1he
 
product bread is not ec:tirely made of ragi floor- as in U'le -present invention. Also,

cysteine does not funn the ingredient in the present patent

Reference may be made here to EPO 396162. 81, B2 wherein bread improvers are

used. for ~i!:; ~ ;;:cCs :Ind ~ ~-~ !:~_se ceUWase enzym~ eg:

xylanase  includes  an  oxidase or  peroxidases.  The  mixture  of enzymes niay be

incorporated  in  flour  as  an  additive  to  dough  fur  bread or  other  baked  dough

ptoducts eg: puff pastry. The drawback here is that the bread improvers consisting of

enzymes is added to 'baked goods made  from relined wheat flour and oot yeast

leavened products made using raj!i flour (finger ragi flour) as the main raw material.

10    The •improve!" used in the present invention is !!Ct !!ll ,...,~,'!!!f. or enzyme mixture.

Reference may be made here GB 2360438A wbm:in ,m, invention provides a liquid

•    bread improver composition in a funn of a suspenslQD af an improving agent in an oily vehicle and a fumed silica slllbiliziDg "!!"DL The improving agent can be selected from oxidising agents. reducing agems and enzymes. The drawhack here is

15    that the improver mi1 in the present invention is not in the liquid funn !IDd the oxidising, reducing agmts or the eozrnes do not li>nn the ingredients of the

~rover mix.

OBIECIS OF TirE INVEI'ITIO"'

The main object of the present invention n:lates oo a lingl::r millet bread funnulation

'9    and a process fur p<eparing the same.

Another object of the present invention relates to the ~on ofbread using ragi

flour or coarse cereal flour of9S % extraction~

Yet anotb.eroO_!ecr of the present invemion :n:ims m ;:;x ~zr.n:ion of yeast based

bakery products using the formulation of the present ipve:ttion.

25    Yet another ~bject of the present i~ention relares to use of combination of improvers \iki: dry gluten powder, ascomic acid, fungal a - amylase. distilled
glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoj>l- 2- lactylate.

Still another ob_iecl nf the present invc:ntioo i.s th~ the ~"i::.le size of millet flour

would be such that the percentage troughs of 10 XX ( 129 ~)sieVe will be    74

30    -78~{..
 
Yet another• object of the -prescut i:rf.;ention is that 95 % ~ rare af millet

flour is obtairuod by sifting millet flour through 45 mesh (480 11) to remove about 5

%bran.

characteristics to millet dough by using tbe fonnulation of the invention.

Still another object of the present invention is to modify mixing method for the preparation of millet bread dough.

Another object of the present inventioo is .to PJOdnce ragi bread having increased protein and calcium content when compared to wbiie pan bread

10    Sl.TMMAR.Y OF THE INVE..''fl'ION

The present _invention rehm:s to millet bread futmn'J-n;mr ar.d .: (UUCeSS for preparing tbesame.

DIITAILED DESClUPTION OF THE INVL>ITION:

Accordingly the present invention relates to a millet bread fuDDillation comprising:

                           
                        100   
                           
    Compressed Yeast                4-6   
                           
    Salt                Il-l.:'   
                    I   
    Sugar                J-.25   
                           
                           
                           
                    . ~o-::•   
    Ascorbic acid                OJJ05- 0.015   
    Fungal a- amylase            0.001 -0.005   
    Distilled Glycerol mono stearate            0.1-0.25   
    5oGi= ~1 - 2 -lact}iate                   
                       
                       
    Cah:ium propionate                   
                       
    Glacial acetic acid                i 0.05 -:i),l5   
            _L
Fing!:r millet is also called 'ragi'. The botanical name• of the plant is Eleurine corr:ana. Hereafte<, the tenn 'finger millet' is also referred as 'ragi' and is iateoded to mean and denote 'fipger millet' from the said plant

bt an embodiment of the present invention the chy gluten powder selected may be having protein content 74-78% and wate<bolding capacity 1.3-1.4 milg.

bt another embodiment of the present invention the enzyme selected may be fungal n- amylase having activity of 50,000 SKB (Standsted Kneen Blish) units/g

bt yet another embodiment of the present invention, the ragi bread may be having

10    the following characteristics

Parameters    Range
       
Weildlt(~)    152-153
Vohnne(ml)    520-560
Specific vohnne  milt<)    3.42-3.54
Crumb Finnness*  fim:e, g)    1000-1100
Crust       
Colour(10)    8-9
Shape  15    12-14
Symmetry  IS)    12-14
Crumb   
Colour(!O)    6-8
Grain 20    16-!8
Mouthfuel (20)    16-18
Tasle(IO)    8-9
Overall qualitv score (100)    78-90

The fat used may be any hydrogenated fat made from vegetable oils.

The invention also provides a process for prqJaring a ragi bread comprising the steps

of:

15    a) preparing finely groand ragi  flour wherein 5% bran is separated.

b)    h.ydrating the ragi flour and chy glwen powder iOr !0 min with SO % water,

c)    dissolving yeast sal~ sugar.  ascorbic acid. fungru alpna amyiase. distilled

glycerol mooo •stear.lle. sodium stearoyl-2-~- calciiD!I propionao:.

!0    glacial acetic acid separately in water,
 
d} mixing of hydnlled ragi flour and the mixture of step (c) fur 5 min to

obtain a dough and allowing the dough to ferment fur a period _of10 mio,

e)    remixing the ragi dough of step (d) fur 2 min and relaxing the ragi dough fur 15 to 30 mio,

f)    moulding the ragi dough of step (e) using mechanical device,

g)    proofing the dough fur 30 to 45 mio,

h)    baking the proofed dough in m oven at a temperature ranging from 220 to 230°C fur a period of25 to 30 mio, and

i)    cooling fur 2-3 hrs to obtain ragi bread.

10    In the above process, 'knockback' involves remixing the dough afler elapse of about three quarters of the fenneolation time. In the step of 'Proofing', the moulded

dough pieces are panned and given a ferment3lion period  until sufficient rise is

obtained.    In the step of scaling, the dough is weighed into pieces of appropriate

quantity, e.g. 450 g of dough is weighed and afler baking 400 g bread is obtained

.15    In still  yet an 8noth,.: embodiment of the present invention  the  weigbls  of the

~ents used for the prq>aration of ragi bread ""'

    Ingredients        Weight (kg)       
                       
    Ragiflour        100           
                       
    Compressed yeast        4-6           
                       
    Salt        1-1.5           
                       
    Sugar        3-25           
                       
    Fat        1-3    !   
    Dry gluten powder        10-20           
    Ascorbic acid        0.005- 0.015       
    Fungal  a- amylase        0.001 -    0.005       
                       
    Distilled Glycerol mooo steante        0.1 -0.25       
    Sodium stcaroyl- 2 - lactylate        0.1-0.25       
                   
    Calcium propionate        02-0...5       
                   
                   
    Glacial acetic acid        0.05-0.15       
                       
    Water        85-95        I   
                       
To  describe  in  dctaJl,  the  process  fur prepanng  the  rag~ breoG  furmu!ation.

comprises:

Step 1. ~ 11/ragifloar

Commerciiilly available ragi is finely ground in cbaldci (disc mill) and the flour is

sifted through 32 mesb (670  11! to  remove bran. The  brnn  is reground into fine

p!.'u.-rl-...-:ii~. • ed "il:h ~ ~-t"" "!he. ""1"2':'+1.-'!asize ofcagi flour wo1!l.d be.SI:d:!

that the peroenlaoae troughs of 10 XX (129 J1) sieve will be 74- 78 %.

Step 2.  Preparation o/95% ertrtu:tion rau ragijlolu

Ragi flour of 95 % extrBction rate is obtained by removing 5 % bran using 45 mesh

(480J1).

Step 3. Method ofpreparatiDrt

10    a. hydraling ofragi flour and dry~ pov;1h:r fur 8- 10 min using 50% of the total water,

b.    dissolving yeast, salt and sugm- separately in remaining water,

c.    nDxing of hydrated ragi flour and ciiy gluk:n powder with dissolved yeast, soh, sugar suspensions and -- ingrediems fur 4- 6 min at speed .I and 4 -

15    6 min at speed,

d.    fermeming the ragi dough fur a period of30 to 60 min,

e.    remixing the ragi dough fur 2 min, dividing and rounding,

(    relaxing the ragi dough fur 15 m 30 min,

g.    moulding the ragi dough using mechanical device.

:!0    h.    proofing the dough fur 30 m --'5!!lin.

i.    baking the proofud dough in an <»= ar a remperarure ranging from 220 to 2J0°C for a period of 25 to JO min,

j.    cooling for 2-J hrs to obtain ragi bread.

I'Teparatioa of ragi bread

25The following futmulation was used               
                   
    Mat<rials    !Range    Quantity    Dry matter   
        I    (kg)       
                   
    Ragi !lour    jiOO-    100    88.0   
    Compressed Yeast    14-6    5.0    0.5   
 




    Salt                1-1.5        i l.5                       
                                    1.5               
    Sugar                3-25        5.0            5.0.               
                                                           
    Fat                1-3        2.0            2.0               
                    110-20        po        18.4.               
    Dn:~powder                -                    !   
                                           
    Ascorbic acid                0.005        O.QI        O.QI               
    Fungal a- amylase            0.015        0.002            0.002               
                0:001    -                               
    Distilled    glycerol                    0.25            0.25               
                    0.005                                   
    monostearate                        025            0.25               
                    0.1-0.25                                   
            2  -                                               
    Sodium    steamy!                                                   
    lactylalt                0.1-025                                   
                                                       
    Calcium propionate            j02-0.5        03            0.3               
                                                   
                                                       
    GJacil;l acetic add        f O.Q5-{'.!.5        0.1            0.1               
                                                           
    Watet                    85-95        90            -               
    Total city matter                                    116312               
    Add moisture                                    53.85               
    (15%    moistw<:    in  rag;.                    ! --            170.162               
                                                           
    bread)                                                       
                                                           
    Production deficit    (0.5~)}                                -1.70               
    Production deficit (0.5%)                                               
                                                   
                                                           
                                            168.462               

Yield of standard loa..,•es ..1/)Q g p:=- : ("(; ~ cf r.lgi flour    42 l Nos

~e rlli=rerem ~operations and~~~~~~<>!' ofragi bread are

given below in the following flow chart.

we;gbmg <he~~

Hydration o(ragi flourjdtyglalnpo-..(10 min)

Mb<.ing oringr<:dieato (*a ...tl.te.eloped stage)

Fermentab00.(3U~at30"'C. 75 10'aRH)

I
1
Knock bal!!"<1- 3 roau

Proofing30-40mioat30'C, 8S% RH

~

Baking 220' C for 25 min

~

Cooliogfor2-3h
.    ~

S1icia& & hckq
The following examples are g;..., by way of illustrations and should not be construed to limit the scope of the pr1:ISilllt imentiou
Example I       
~"f/_,.1       
    (g)   
Ragi flour    100   
Compressed yeast       
Salt    l.5   
Sugar    5   
Fill       
       
Dry gluten powder       
Distilled glycerol mooo stearate    20   
Sodium stearoyl- 2 -lactylate    0.25   
Caiciwn propiooate    0.25   
Glacial acetic acid    0.3   
Walcr    0.1   
   
Ragi tlour    I 00

Compressed yeast


        Salt                1.5                   
        Sugar                                                   
        Fat                2                       
        Dry gluten powder                               
        Ascorbic acid                    1ll           
        Distilled glycerol mono stearate            O.ot           
        Sodium steamy!- 2 -lactylate    0.25               
        Calcium propionate        0.25               
        Glacial acetic acid        0.3                   
        Water-                0.1                   
                                           
                        95                   
                                                       
                EDIII(Jie 3                                       
        Co~offo,.,llkltiM3           
                                (g)           
                                                       
        Ragi flour                100                       
        Compressed yeast                                           
        Sah                    !.S               
        Sugar                                                   
        Fat                    2                               
        . Dry gluten powder                                           
        Ascqrbic acid                20                           
        Fungal a- amylase            0.01                   
        Distilled glycerol mono steall!Ie    . 0.002               
            Io-25               
        Sodium =rroyl- 2 -lactyla!e                   

Method ofpreptUYition

L    Mb.:ingofcsldrolm:gi~

i.    Dissolving yeast, salt and sugar separalely in part of total Wl!ler-

ii.    Mixing ohagi flour with dissolved yeast, salt, sugar suspensions and otber ingredients fur 3 min arspeed I and 3 min at speed n.

2    Mixing oj ~ mgi dsugk (Ftlt"IIUII4tllni I, 2 t111tl 3)

I.    Hydration ofagi flour and dry gluten. powder fo<IO min using 50% of the lx>tal water.

10    2.   Dissolving yeast, sah and sugarsepai3lcly in remaining water.

3.    Mil<ing of hydrated 13gi flour and dry gluten powder with dissolved yeast, salt, sugar suspensions and Olbcr ~ of funnulation I, Z and 3 sepanttely eo.

5 min at speed I and 5 min at s;o:ed I!.

4.    Fermenting control and experimentalagi doughs fur a period of30 min.

15    5.  Remixing the ragi dough fu. 2 min. dividing and rounding.

6.  Relaxin8 the ragi dough fur 15 min.

7    Moulding the ragi c!<>ugh.

8.    Proofing the dough fur 30 min.

9.    Baking at 22fl' C for 25 min.

20    10. Cooling for Z- 31us. packing.

II. Evllluating the ragi bread fur its pizysil:allllld sensory cbazacteristics.

Experiments were conducted by preparing ragi breads in order to find out the effect of three formulations on the quality ofmgi bread. Bread weight was recorded, bread
'~!= ~.-,. detennir.::! •+:'::-::t"' ~displacement. A panel of si.~ tr-..ir.ed judgeS

carried out the sensory evaluation of bread samples by assigning scores fur crust color, shape, symmetry, crumb color, grain, mouthfeel and taste. The ovetall quality score (I 00) was taken as the combined score of all the above attributes. Crumb finnness was measured according to AACC (2000) procedure using texture analyser (Model Tahdi, Stahle Microsystems, UK) under the fuUowing conditions: sample

10    thiclc=s- 25 mm, load cell- 10 Kg. ;rlunger diameter- 36 mm and plunger speed

-    100 mm per minute. C=!> !i=nJss ,.1Jicb is a furce at 25 % compreasiou was

measured.

Control ragi bread and mgi breads using three formulations were prepared and subjected to objective and sensory evaluation. The weight and volume of control
15    mgi bread WlJS 137 g and !70 ml, ragi breads prepared using formulalion I (!55 g and -160 ml) fuiJDulatiOD 2 (!54 g and ~90 ml) and funnulation 3 (!54 g and 525 ml) respectively. The Specific loaf volume of control mgi bread was !.24 mllg and it increased to 2.97 mllg fuc mgi bread prepared using funnulation !, funnulation 2 (3.!8 mJ/g) and funnulation 3 (3.4! ml"g).

20 Table 2. EF,FECT OF IMPROVER MIX ON THE BREAD MAKING QUALflY OF RAGIF!.OUR

i            Examples           
    Parameletl;        Control               
                I    2    3   
                           
    Weight(g)    137    155    54    154   
                           
    Yolume(ml)    170    460    490    525   
                           
    Specific volmne !=l';;        ---    2.97    3.18    3.41   
                           
                           
    Crumb Finnness• (ro~<:e, g)        19.000    1.200    1120    1050   
                           
    Crust        2        8    9   
                           
    Colour(IO)            7           

Shape(l5)    I    10        12    13
                   
Symmetty (15)    11    13        8    14
                   
Crumb                   
Colour(IO)    4    7        7    7
                   
Grain(20)    I    14        16    17
                   
Moulhfeel (20)    4    15        16    17
                   
Taste (10)    4    8        8    9
                   
Overall quality score (I 00)    Hi    72        80    86
                   

• Force at 25 % compression measured using texturometer

The control mgi bread has a crumb firmness va1ne of 19000 g indicating a very hard

texture. The crumb firmness values of mgi breads prepared using furmula1ions I, 2

and 3 ranged from 1050 - 1200 g. The mgi bmld prepared using furmula1ion 3 bad

the lowest crumb fimmess.valne of 1050 g indicatiug soft texture of the breML The

above data indicalecllhal the furmula1ion 3 significantly improved vobmie, specific

volume and taxtwe of mgi bread. Sensory ewlualion of mgi bread ;;bowed lhal the

conlrol ragi bread bad wbi1ish crust colour, flat shape, dark brown crumb colour,

10    completely closed gnin and hard texture. Ptqmation of ragi breads using furmulalioos l, 2 and 3 significantly improved the crust colour, shape, cnnnb gnin and texture of mgi bread. This is indicated by the increase in seosory ~ fur above parameters. The overall quality""""' ofcomrol ragi bread was.l6 out of 100

and it ranged from 72 - 86 fur ragi broads pn:pared using funnnlalions  I, 2 and l.

IS    Higbest improvement in the overall ~ san of 86 was recorded by fOrmulation

3  followed  in decrloasing- order by  fOrmulation 2  (80)  and  funnulation  I  (72).

However all the breads possessed typical wholesome ragi taste. Based on the above

data it could  be concluded  that the  funnulation  3  was  fuund  most  suited  li>r

producing excellent quality ragi bread.


We claim

I. A finger millet bread fOrmulation comprising

    Ingredients    Weight {gmns)       
               
    Finger millet flour    IOO    '   
               
    Compressed Y-    4-6       
    Salt    I-I.5       
               
    Sugar    3-25       
               
    Fat    I-3       
               
    Dry gluten powder    10-20       
    Ascorbic acid    0.005 -O.OI5       
    Fungal  a- amylase    O.OOI- 0.005       
    Distilled Gly<:eroi mono stearate    O.I-0.25       
    Sodium stearoyl- 2 -Iactylatc    O.I-0.25       
               
               
    Calcium propiOnate    0.2-0.5       
               
    Glacial acetic acid    0.05-0.I5       
    Water    85-95       
               

2.    A formulation as claimed in claim I wherein 1he dry gluten powder has a protein content of74-78% aud Wlller•holdingcapacity 1.3-1.4 mlig.

3.    A funnulation as claimed in claims I aud 1 wherein 1he enzyme fungal u • amylase has ail activity of all- 50.000 SKB (Standsted KDeen Blish) units/g.

4.    A funnulation as claimed •in claims I - 3 wbcrein the iiril&:t bread bas 1he fullowing chanicteristics.
Parameters    Range   
       
Weigbt(g}    152-158   
           
Voiume(m1)    S20    - 560   
       
Specific voimne (!iii. 5 ;    3.42-3~   
Crumb Firmness• (force. g)    1000    -1100   
           
Crust    8-9   
Colour(IO)       
Shape(l5)    12-14   
Symmetry (I 5    12    -14   
       
    Crumb    6-8   
    Colour (IQ)_       
    Grain  20)    16-18   
    Mouthfeel (20    16-18   
    Taste (10)    8-9   
I  Overall QD.a!ity score  100    78-90   
           

5.    A process fur preparing millet bread comprising the steps of:

a)    preparing finely ground finF millet flour wherein 5% bran is separated,

b)    hydrating the .agi flour and dry gluten P9Wder for  10 min with 50 %

warer,

c)    dissolving yeast, sal~ sugar, ascorbic acid, fimgaJ alpha amylase. distilled glycerol mom stearate, sodium ..-oyl-2-lactylate, calcium propionate, glacial acetic acid aeparately in wak:r,
d)    mixing oflcydialed millet Dour and tbe mixture of step {c) for S min to

10    obtain a dough and allowing tbe dough to ferment fur a period of30 min,

e)    temixing the millet dougb of step {d) fur 2 min and relaxing the millet dougb fur IS to 30 min,
f)    moulding the millet dough of step {e) using mechanical device.

g) proofing the dough fur 30 to 45 min,

IS    h) baking the proofi:d dough in an o..,. at a temperature ranging from 220 to

13ffc fur a period of25 to :io min, and

i)  cooling fur 2-3 hrs to oblain millet bread.

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