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(II) Patent Number: KE 395

(51) IntCL7: A 23L 1/82, B 02B 1/00, 3/00

(21) Applicatioo Number: KE/P/2002/ 000273

(22) Filing Date: 25/03/2002

(30) Priority data:

(86) PCTdate PCTIIB02/01081 25/0312002 W003/080248 02/1012003
 
(73) 0wner:COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH of Rafi marg, New Delhi 110001, India

(72) Inventor: MALLESH NAGAPPA GURUSIDDAPPA

(74) Agentladdress for correspondence: Waruinge & Waruinge Advocates,
 
(54) Title: DECORTICATED FINGER MILLET (ELEUCINE CORACANA) AND PROCESS FOR ITS PREPARATION

(57) Abstract: The present invention relates to a decorticated fmger millet (Eleusine coracana) and a process for preparing the decorticated finger millet.
 
DECORTICATED  FINGER  MILLET   (ELEUSINE  CORACANA)  AND  PROCESS  POR  ITS  PREPARATION TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a decorticated finger millet (E/eusine coracana) and a process for preparing the decorticated finger millet

BACKGROUND ART

Finger millet (Ragi) is a small seeded, light brown to brick red colored minor cereal. It is a good source of carbohydrates, sulfur amino acids, dietary fiber and micronutrients and is the richest source of calcium among the cereals. Most of the millet produced is pulverized and the whole meal is utilized for preparation of traditional lndisn foods such as

unleavened pancakes (roti) and thick porridge or dumpling (mudde). A small proportion is utilized to prepare popped and malt foods also. Epidemiological reports indicate that,

regular consumption of the millet reduces incidences of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular

15    diseases, duodenal ulcer and other gastrointestinal tract related disorders. The millet is not amenable for cooking in the form of grains similar to rice, because, the seed coat of the millet grains is not removed and the seed coat not only a.ffects the cooking quality hut also ito eating quality. Hence, the millet is always pulverized and the flour is used for food
preparation and never cooked in the grain form. The endosperm of the millet is of floury

20    texture but it is covered with the rigid seed coal Since, the seed coat is firmly attached to the endosperm, both the endosperm and the seed coat fragment together to fine gri!B and flour during decortication or milling. Hence, efforts to decorticate the millet by hitherto known processes have not been successful Therefore, the whole grain millet is pulverized and the meal is utilized for various fuod preparations. The pulverized seed coat imparts
25    dark color, coarse fibrous texture and chm:acteristic odor to the millet foods. These factors not only affect the nu1ritional quslity of the millet produc!B but also hinder their acceptability, especially by the non-traditional millet consumers.

Reference may be made to P.P. Knrien and ILS.R. Desikachar {ReJjning of millet flours-

I. Ragi (Eieusi"" coracana). Journal of Food Science (Mysore), Vol 11, 136- 137, 1962},

30    wherein, the millet was steamed for about 2 ~ moistened with 5% additional water, pulverized in Wiley mill and the meal was sifted through 250 n ~creen, to prepare a flour with a lower proportion of husk (seed coat) content.

Reference may also  be made to P.P. Kurian and H.S.R. Desikachar  {Preparation of a refined white flour from mgi   (Eleuiiine coracana) using a laboratory mill.  Journal of 35    Food,  Science  and Technology,  Vol  3, 56-58, 1966}, wherein, moist-conditioning and milling the millet in laboratory wheat mill was effective far preparation of refined millet flour (the flour containing vary low levels of seed coat).
•The millet kernels were hardened by soaking in water a! 65° C for 3 hr, steaming for 30 min at atmospheric pressure and drying the same. The wet heat treatment enabled to prepare grits {H.S.R Desikachar, Effect of wet heat trealment on the culinary qualities of ragi (Eleusine coracana). Jouroal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 9, 149 - 150, 1972}. However, the seed coat was intact with the grits and affected the culinary and the sensory qualities of the foods prepared from the grits.

Wet heat treatment comprising of soaking the rough rice or paddy (Oriza sativa) in water,

10    followed by steaming and drying, (parboiling), hardens the rice endosperm, heals, the cracks and improves its milling efficiency by minimizing the breakage during dehusking and debranning. This treatment to rice has also been shown to enhance its nutritioual quality by increased retention of thiamine, minerals besides, improves the texture of

cooked rice by redncing the stickiness also (K.R. Bhattacharya and S.Z. AH, Changes in

15    rice during parboiling and properties of parboiled rice. In: Advances in Cereal Science and

Technology, Vol. 7, 105- 167,1985).

Likewise, hardening the endosperm of soft wheat by wet heat treatment (Bulgar wheat) is

practiced to prepare large grits or wheat cracks from soft wheat (A. W. Suhasini and N. G.

20    Malleshi, Studies on preparation, popping and functional properties of bulgar wheat. Die Nabrong, Vol. 38,568-577, 1994).

The drawbacks of the hithertu followed millet milling processes are that, following these methods only grits and flour from the millet could be prepared, and not the decorticated

25    millet grains. The process followed for milling of wet heat treated rice and wheat can not be applied to finger millet, because, the morphology of millet kernels (smaller siu, spherical shape and intactness of the seed coat with the endosperm) differs totally from that
of rice (the husk that covers the rice is a separate entity which is loosely attached with the

inner caryopsis) and wheat (bigger grain with thin multiple layers of seed coat, namely, the

30    bran that is separable easily). Hence, generally the millet grains are pulveri2ed and the whole meal millet is utili2ed for food. This limits the usage of the millet only to flour

based traditional foods such as roti and mudde, that too by the traditioual consumers, and

not in the form similar to cooked rice or wheat semolina.

Another drawback of the hithertu koown millet milling processes is that, the foods based 35 on whole meal happens to be sticky and slimy and also impart the characteristic odor.
These  factors  affect  the  sODBory  qua!ilies  and  in  tum  the  acceptability  of the  millet products.

Thus, neither a process for decortication of millet nor the decorticated finger millet are

available in any part of the world to the best of the Applicant's knowledge. OBJECI'S OF THE INVENTION:
The main object of the present invenlion is to provide a decorticated finger millet.

Another object of the present invenlion is to provide a decorticated finger millet having the physicochemical characteristics as therein described.
Another  object  of the  present  invention  ia  to  provide  a process  for  preparation  of

10    decorticated finger millet.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide a process for preparation of decorticated finger millet, which can be cooked similar to rice or can be pulverized to prepare grits or flour similar to wheat for various food uses.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENT INVENTION:

15    Accordingly, the present invenlion provides a decorticated finger millet (E/eusine coracana) having the following physicochemical charscterislics:

    (a)    Appearance:    Spherical and opaque
    (b)    Color(% whiteness):    Light Cream (10.8)
    (c)    Hardness (Kglcm2):    about 7.1
20    (d)    1000 kernel wt (g):    about 2.6
    (e)    1000 kernel volume (mi):    about 1.7
    (f)    Density (mlv):    about 1.501
    (g)    Protein (g %):    about 6.3
    (h)    Fat(g%):    about 0.9
25    (i)    Minerals (g %):    about 1.0
    G)    Acid insoluble iulh (%):    about O.o7
    (k)    Calcium (mg %):    about 1.80
    (I)    Dietary Fiber(%):    about 14.7
    (m)    Available carbohydrate(% by difference):    about66.5
30    (n)    Phosphorous (mg %):    about 109
    (o)    Phytate (mg %):    about 142
    (p)    Polypheools (mg %) (Catechin equivalent):    about 67
    (q)    Equilibrium moisture content(%), at 30' C:    about 68
    (r)    Solubility(%), at 30' C:    about8.5
 




(s)    Swelling(%), at 30" C:    about 190
(t)    Swelling(%), at 80" C:    about 270 and
(u)    Cooking time (min):    about 5

Wherein "about" indicates that the value may vary by small margin on either side.

In an embodiment of the present invention, the decorticated finger millet has the following physicochemical characteristics:

    (a)    Appearance:    Spherical and opaque
    (b)    Color(% whiteness):    Light Cream (10.8)
10    (c)    Hardness (Kg/cm2):    7.1
    (d)    I 000 kernel wt (g):    2.6
    (e).    1000 kernel volume (ml):    1.7
    (f)    Density (mlv):    1.501
    (g)    Protein (g %):    6.3
IS    (h)    Fat(g%):    0.9
    (i)    Minerals (g %):    1.0
    G)    Acid insoluble ash(%):    O.o7
    (k)    Calcium (mg %):    1.80
    (I)    Dietary Fiber(%):    14.7
20    (m)    Available carbohydrate ('/o by difference):    66.5
    (n)    Phosphorous (mg %):    109
    (o)    Phytate (mg %):    142
    (p)    Polyphenols (mg %) (Catechin equivalent):    67
    (q)    Equilibrium moisture content(%), at 30" C:    68
2S    (r)    Solubility(%), at 30° C:    8.5
    (s)    Swelling(%), at 30" C:    190
    (t)    Swelling (%), at 80" C:    270 and

(u)    Cooking time (min):

30    The 'present invention also provides a process for decorticatiug finger millet (E/eusine coracana), said process comprising:
(a)    hydratiug the millet near to its saturation moisture content;

(b)    heat treating the hydrated millet to induce starch gelatiuisation, rupture of granular

structure, formation of lipid amylose complex and healing of cracks present in the

35    endosperm;
 



(c)    con1rolled drying the heat-treated millet to induce retrogradation of starch, hardening of endosperm tissue and reduction in the intactness of the endosperm with seed cpat;

(d)    moistening and short tempering the millet obtained from step "c" to impart leathery texture to the seed coat, and
(e)    passing  the  millet  thus   obtained  through  conventional  abrasive  mills  to

detacb/remove the seed coal

In an embodiment of the present invention, the millet is optionally cleaned before soaking

it in the water.

10    In another erobodiment of the present invention, the millet is hydrated using portable water.

In still another embodiment of the present inventioo, the water edsorbed to the hydrated millet is drained before subjecting il to heat-treattnent process.

In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the hydrated millet is heat-treaied by

15    steaming.

In a further embodiment of the present invention, the steaming may be done at abnospheric pressure or at pressures up to 5 Kg/cm2.

fu one more embodiment of the present invention, the heat-treated millet is dried using mechanical drier or dried under snn or dried under shade.

20    In one another embod.iment of the present invention, the heat-treated millet is moistened using portable water.
In an embodiment of the present invention, the seed coat detached doring milling is aspired off.

The present invention more particularly provides a process fur decorticating finger millet

25    said process comprises:

(a)    soaking or steeping the millet in a minimum of 0.4 (w/v) water at 20 -70' C for 2-

16hr;

(b)    draining  the  edsoxbed  water  if any  and  steaming  the  soaked  millet  either  at

atmospheric or at pressure up to 5.0 kglcm2, for 2-20 min;

30    (c) drying the millet obtained from the aforesaid step, to 8- 16% moisture coutent by conventional mechanisms, and

(d)    mixing the dried millet obtained from the aforesaid step, with 3 - 8% edditional water, tempering for 10- 15 min and decorticating the same in abrasive mills and aspirating off the seed coat.
 



In an embodiment of tho present invention, said process for decortication most preferably

comprises:

(a)    cleaning the millet manually or mechanically;

(b)    soaking or steeping the cleaned millet in a minimum of 0.4 (w/v) potable water at

20 -70" C for 2- 16 hr;

(c)    washing the millet with a minimum of 2 - 3 volumes of potable water till it is free

from light floating surface contaminants, undesirable odor and the leachates;

(d)    draining the adsorbed water if any and steaming the soaked millet either at -ospheric or at pressure up to 5.0 Kg/cm2 for 2-20 min;

10    (e) drying the. millet obtained from 'step d', to 8 - 16% moisture content in a mechanical drier maintained at 30 - 60" C or in sun/shade, and
(!)    mixing  the  dried  millet  obtained  from  'step  e'  with  3-8%  additioual  water,

tempering for 10 - 15 min and decorticating the same in abrasive mill and aspirating off the seed coat.

15    In an embodiment of the present invention, tho cleaned millet may be steeped or soaked in

0.4- 1.2 volumes potable water at 20 - 70" C for 4- 16 hr.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the steeped millet may be boiled in water for 10-20 min or steamed at pres!!Utes up to 5 kg/cm2 for 3-20 min.

In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the soaked or steanzed millet is dried

20    to 8 - 16% moisture content in sun I sbade or in a mechanical drier maintained at 30-60°c.

In a still another embodiment of the present invention, the dried millet may be mixed with

4- 8% additioual water, tempered for 10-15 min, and decorticated, preferably, in an emery coated sbrasive mill to 5 - 20% degree of decortication and the decorticated millet may be

25    separated from the seed coat detached during decortication, mech.;ru,ally or manually, by gravity, winnowing or by aspiration
Although,  the inveotion is  described in detail with reference  to  specific  embodiment

thereof, it will be understood that, variations, which are functionally equivalent are within

the scope of this invention. Indeed, various modifications of the invention, in addition to

30    those shown and described therein, will became apparent to those skilled in the art from the pre-going description. Such modifications are intended to fall within the scope of the invention and eppended claims.

The novel features of the process are that, it permits utilization of the millet grown at different a.gro-climatic conditions, kemels of varying size, shape, color and hardness.
 




Hydrating the  millet near to  its saturation moiature content and subjectiog it to heat

treatment by steam or any such other means modifies the characteristics of the biochemical

components of the millet kerneL The notable changes or the modification are, the starch

gelatiniaation, rupture of its granular structure and fo!!Dlltion of the lipid-amylose complex, besides healing the cracks present in the endosperm. Controlled drying, further induces an array of chemical and textoral changes resultiog in retrogradation of starch, hardening of the endosperm tissue and reducing the intactness of the seed coat with the endosperm. Subsequently, incipient moistening and short dnration tempering imparts leathery texture
to the  seed coat and facilitates its easy separation during decortication. Moreover, the

10    process .improves the overall nutritional qualities of the millet due to fixing of thiamine and some of the minerals with the endosperm, thereby preventing the loss of these nutrients during washing and cooking. Denaturing the enzyme inhibitors and lowering the concentration of polyphenols and phytates also contribute for the imprOvement in the

nutritional quality of the millot prepared by thiB process. In addition, the shelf-life of the

15    millet products iB also improved due to inactivation of the lipases and hardening the endosperm.

The decorticated millet prepared following  thiB  process will  be of light crearu color,

tnmslucent or chalky texture with smooth surface, besides, it is free from seed coat and the

characteriBtics musty odor, normally associated with the millet Hence, it will have better

20    consumer appeal, improved storage life and enhanced nutritional quality. SinCe, the decorticoted millot contains complex carbohydrates, good amount of dietary fiber and micro-nutrients, it could be hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic. It may, not only be useful for conventional foods but also find utilization as a careal base for several health

foods nsmely food namely food for diabotes and functional foods such as slimming foods.

25    The novelty of the process lies in its simplicity, adsptability from home to industrial scale and improving the overall nutritional and culinary qualities of the millot without subjecting it to any chamical or health hazardous treatments.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMI'ANYING DRAWING:

In the drawing accompanying thiB specification, Figure 1, represents the salient features of

30    the process for preparation of the decorticated millel

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING TABLES:

In the tables accompanying the specification,

Table 1 represents the yield of milling fractions of millet milled as such and after moist-conditioning.
 


8.

Table 2 represents yield if milling fractions of millet milled as such and after moist-conditioning.
Table 3 gives tile physicochemical characteristics of the decorticated millet

The following examples  are  given by way of illustration of the present invention  aod

theiefore should not be construed to limit the scope of the present invention.

Example-1

Twenty  five kilograms  of the millet cleaned  off the  extraneous  matter manually was

washed with a minimum of two volumes of potable water 2 times and soaked in 40 L water

10    at 28" C for 12 hr. The soaked material was washed again to free it from the floatings and leachates and was collected over a 25 mesh metallic screeD. to drain off the adsorbed water, followed by spreading in 10 Nos. of 1.5' x 3' x 211 dimension metallic trays. The trays were placed one above another in an autoclave, the top tray was covered with another tray and

the material was steamed at atmospheric pressure for 20 min. The steamed millet was dried

15    to 12 % moisture content in a mechanical air drier maintained at 40° C. A portion of the dried millet was decorticated in an emery coated horizontal plate m.il..l, adjusted to 1.4 mm clearance between the plates and the other portion was mixed with 5.0 % additional water,

tempered for 10 min and decorticated in the same mill The seed coat detached during

milling was aspirated off. The decorticated millet (head grains) were separated from the lO grits (brokens) by sieving through 16 meah (BSS) sieve. The milling fractions were

equilibrated and weighed (fable !).

Table 1: Yield of milling fractions of millet milled aa such and after moist-conditioning

    S.No.    YJO!d(g%)    DecorticatEd Wi1hout    Decortk:ated W.Jh
            MDlstCon~    MDlst Conditionln!!
    1.    Decorticated head gmins    45.0    81.5
    2    B.rolrens crusbedmillotor wits)    35.0    3.5
    3.    Seed coat    20.0    15.0
    4.    Color (% W1ritc:m:ss    6.5    9.0
2S    Example-2   

Twenty  five  kilograms  of the  millet cleaned off the  extraneous  matter manually  was

washed with a minimum of two volumes of potable water 2 times and soaked in 40 L water

at 28" C for 12 hr. The soaked material waa washed again to free it from the floatinga and

Ieachates and was collected over• a 25 mesh (BSS) metallic screen to drain off the adsorbed

30    water, followed by spreading in lO Nos. of lS' x 3' x 2" dimension metallic trays. The trays were placed one above another in an autoclave, the top tray was covered with another
 




lraJC and the material was steamed at 5 kglcm'pressure for 2 min. The steamed rnil,lot W!lB

dried to 12% moisture content in a mechanical air drier maintained at 40° C. A portion of

the dried millet was decorticated in an emery coated horizontal plate mill, adjusted to I .4

mm cleorance b-een the plates and the other portion was mixed with 5.0 %  additinoal

water, tempered for 10 min and  decorticated i?-  the same mill. The seed coat detached

during milling was aspirated oft: The decorticated millet (head grains) were separated from the grits (brokens) by sieving through mesh (BSS) sieve. The milling fractions were equilibrated and weighed.

10    Table 2: yield if milling fractions of millet milled as such and after moist-conditiiDiing

S.No.    Yield(g%)    Decorticated Without    Decorticated With
        Moist Conditionin2    Moist ConditioniQ2
I.    Decorliratedhead greins    47.0    83.0
2.    Brokcns crushed mi1lot or grils)    33.0    1.5
3.    Seed coat    20.0    15.5
4.    Color(% Whiteness    6.5    9.0

Ex.ample-3

One hundred kilo grams of finger millet was cleaned using destoner snd wss washed with

a minimum of2 volumes ofpotable water 2 times and soaked in 60 L water at 28~ C for 12

15    hr. The soaked meterial was washed again to free from ±loatings snd leachates and was collected over a 25 mesh metallic screen to drain off the adsorbed water, followed by spreading in 40 Nos. of 1.5' x 3' x 2tl dimension metallic trays. Ten trays containing the soaked millet at a time, were placed one above another in an autoclave, the top tray was
covered with anOther tray and steamed at atmospheric pressure for 20 min. The steamed

20    millet was dried to 12% moisture content in a mecbacical air drier maintained at 40° C.

The prodnct was graded by sifting throngh 1.4 mm and 1.0 mm openiog metallic screens

successively. The millet giains bigger than 1.4 mm, smaller than 1.4 and bigger thao 1.0

mm, and smaller than 1.0 mm, diameter were collected separately. Thua graded millet was

mixed with 5% additional water, tempered for 10 min and decorticated in a horizontal

25    emery coated plate mill (fitted with 3' diameter and 6" thick plates) adjusted to 1.4, 1.2 aod

1.0 mm. clearance between the plates respectively. The seed coat was aspirated off and the

decorticated mi±lot  was sifted in a  vertical rotary sifter fitted  with  0.9 mm  screen to

separate  the decorticated head  grains from the brokens  or  grits.  The  fractions  were

equilibrated and weighed. Tho yield of deoorticated head grains, brokens and the seed coat

30    were 80.6, 4.1 and 15.3 % respec1ively. The informatioc on some of quality attributes of the native snd the decorticated millet.,.. presented in Table 3.
 


10

The main advantages of the present invention are:

I.    Soaking the millet in water hydrates the kernels to their near saturation point (32 ± 2% moisture content) and steaming the hydrated millet gelatinizes its starch content, ruptures its granular structure and facilitates amylose and lipids complexing. In other words, the retrogradation of the starch occors during wet heat treatment and as a result, the floury eodosperm modules to comeus textore, thereby preveoting its breakage daring decortication. On soaking, the grains swell and steaming the same hesls the fiasores preseot in the eodosperm. Further, drying the

steamed millet contmcts the eodosperm. These physico-chemical chaoges reduce

10    the intactness b-een the seed coat and the starchy eodosperm aod also facilitate easy decortication.

2.    The decorticated millets could be cooked to soft texture similar to rice just within 5 min, which has not been ~ssible hitherto and also it could be pulverized into flour
or grits for conventional food preparations.

15    3~   One of the milling by-products, namely the grits could be used similar to wheat

semolina or soji, or it could be pulverized to flour for traditional foods.

4.    There exists scope to prepare flaked, popped aod other novelty foods from the decorticated millet similar to other ~als such as rice, wheat and maize.

5.    By  this  process,  the  nutritional  quality of the  millet  improves  because  of the

20    enhanced retention of some of the water-soluble nutrients and reduction in the conceottation of the antinutritional factors such as phytates, enzyme inhibitors and the seed borne microflora.
6.    The storage quality of the processed millet is also enhanced because of inactivation

of lipase as well as hardening of the endosperm.

25 7. It is altogether a new process for processing of millet which is not followed hitherto anywhere in the country and abroad to the best of our knowledge.

Table 3: physicochemical characteristics of the decorticated millet

    Characteristics    Native    Decorticated
           
    Appearance:    Spherical    Spherical aod opaque
           
30    Color(% whiteness):    Brown(3.2)    Light Cream (10.8)
           
    Hardness (Kg/ern):    1.1    7.1
           
    I 000 kernel wt (g):    2.9    2.6
           
    1000 kemel volume (ml):    2.1    1.7
           
 


    11       
           
    Density (mlv):    1.379    1.501
           
    Protein (g %):    8.1    6.3
           
    Fat(g%):    1.5    0.9
           
    Minerals (g %):    1.9    1.0
           
    Acid insoluble ash(%):    0.12    O.o?
           
    Calcium (mg %):    317    1.80
           
    Dietary Fiber(%):    22.2    14.7
           
    Available carbohydrate(% by difference):    53.9    66.5
           
    Phosphorous (mg %):    211    109
           
10    Phytate (mg %):    236    142
           
    Polyphenols (mg %) (Catechin equivalent):    265    67
           
    Equilibrium moisture content(%), at 30' C:    33    68
           
    Solubility(%), at 30° C:    3.9    8.5
           
    Swelling(%), at 30° C:    70    190
           
15    Swelling(%), at 80' C:    260    270 and
           
    Cooking time (min):    17    5
           
 




16

CJd-

1. . A decorticamd fin8or mffiel having the !bllowing p~~•homl<:al clwacnm.tios:
(a)    Ap -    Spherical md .,p.q••   
(b)    Color(% whllono ..):    Ugbt Cte8!n (1,.8)   
           
{a)    lfl<1lness (Xg/0111'):    abeut7.l   
(d)    I 000 kemo1 wt (S:J:    about2.6   
{e)    !OOOtemelvohnno(ml):    lbour 1.7   
{!)    o .... ity(miv):    lbout !.SOl   
(g)    Pn>tm(g%):    abaut6.3   
(h)    Far(l%):    abaut0.9   
(i)    Woerala (g %):    about 1.0   
ID    Acid insoluble ash (%~    ab<>Ut0.07   
(k)    Calcfllnl (tna %);    abcuti.BO   
(1)    _Di.wyFibor(%):    abeutl4.7   

(m)    Availablocarl»hydm:(%byd-.):   about66.s
(n>    Phoopba<OUo <ma %}:    about!~
(o)    i'h)>Um (DIS%):    lbout!42

(p)    Polypbonolo (mg %)(Cai:<>IDD equMlent):  lbout67

(q)    Equilibrium mol..- coniBDl (%), ar 30' C: lbout ~

(r)    Solubllity (%), 0130° C:    abaut 8,5
(•)    Swelling(%), at 30' C:    about 190
<•>    swc:nm,g (%}, arBO' e:    about 270 and
(u)    CooKing time (mip):    eautS
Whexei11 ..abollt"' indfcates that the wluB may vuy b)'a small mar,an; or. eifbe:r
.    '
side.

2,    A  ~oo~cated fmger  millet u.  claimed

physicochemicalcbancleristios:

(•)    'Appeo!IIJlOO:    Spherical and opaqlfe
(b)    Colorf" wbitonoss):    UghtCream (10.8)\
(c)    Hardness (l(w'cm'):    7.1
(d)    1(1()0 korncl wt {g):    2.6
(e)    1000 kernel voluma (mQ: .    1.7
 




        17
(f)    Denoity (m'v):    1.501
(g)    l'n>tain(ll%):    6.3
(11)    Far(!:%):    0.!1--
co    Mlnoral1 (g %):    1.0
(j)    Acid lnoolul>lo aab (%)    0.07
(k)    Colciulll(lll!l%):    1.80
(Q    DlntmyF~(%):    14.7

(m)    Available carbobydra!>(% b)'- Oe):   66.5

(n)    Pbcspbarollo (IDB %):    Hl9
(o)    Pbyboto (mg %):    . 142

(p)    Polyj,henolo (ms %) (Ortochln "'JuivaJao.\):  67

(q)    'Equilibrium nuMtura Content(%). at 311' C:  68

(r)    Solubility (%), at JO' C:    8.5
(o)    swetrmg (%), at 30" c:    190
(t)    s....mns (%), at BO" c:    27<Jand
(u)    Cool:lnu time (min):    5

3.    A. procest for decordcating. fiDgcr mU1et (&e:Msfu comcana), $aid process coropris:in& rteps af:
(a)    SQ6.kins th~ finger miller in~ ~Je Willer ofabo~t 0.4 CUi wiY~
(b)    heating d:le h)'dreclflngar millet lilt a 1cmp=atum in the nuip of aho.ut

2o-10gC fur about 2- 16 bra~ Induce stan::h !111atiaiu.~ TUpbD'eof

g~anular structure, furtnat:ion cf lipm amylose complex a~ healing of

(~;;}    Wlllshill& tba finger millet obtained in e:tep (b) with 2-3 velum~ of potable • wator ID remove the l..eacball:s and remcw undesirable odor, i

(d)    st:eam.. dfying to dmin excessive water absarbed by the fingw ~llct graina: obtained in step (c) at ~heria prCSinlrB r>f about .5.0 K.alcJ.1 far about

2- 20 minut-e_ tn induce retragL'Idaticm or stare~ hwdenina ot\t:ooOSpcnn tissue and reduction in the intactness of tho endospenn w:lth s~ Cllat.
(e)    dryins tho linuer millot gmlns oblaln•d In •"'P (d) in 111< ~ture range of about 30 to 60~ 'tomaintain a moisture level in tble range of about 8-16% by mechanical drying or und~ the sun or shade, ~
 



.18

(I)    deoortiooling !he driod fin8er minot pins obtained fmni slop (e) by soakini them spin in water far about ID-15 znim.Jtes to~ tM seed oost.

4r    A. prooeaa B.l c~ in o1ain13, wbmlln 1he millot i8 cleaned 'bcfbre soaking k iq

thewau=r.

.5.  A process as clalmcd In claim 3,.wherefn the decortitamd miUet thua )noollced bas
 

l!!efullowins physicoohomicalol!srootorist!oa:

(a)    Apposnnoe:

(b)    Color(% whil:<mo"):

(c)    Hardnoss (Kw'c:m'l:

(d)    I 000 kernel WI (il:

(e)    1000 b:mel volume (m~:

(f)    Denlity {,.,,

(!!)    Pm.,;n(g%):

{b)    Fat{g %):

(i)    Min~ntiB (g %):

G)    Acid lnoolublo aob (%):

{I<)    Calcium (ms %):

{I)    DiotaJ)' Fiber{%):

!ml
 

Spherical and Up~uo

Llsht c..am (lOiS)

about7,1

about2,6

about 1.7

about 1.501

abcut6.3

ohout0.9

about I,Ol

about0.07

about LBO

about 14.7
 

{n)    Phoapbot<>UO !rna%):    about 169
{o)    Phyla;, (ma %):    about J42
{p)    PolYPnonolo <ma: %) {CioloChm oqoivalont):    about 67
{q)    Equilibrium rnoil!lture contmt (%), at 30111  C:    about <58
{r)    Solub;Jity (%),at "30" C: •    >bout 8.5
{s)    Swelling(%), at 30" C:    about 190
(t)    Swelling (%), at 80° C:    about 270 and
(u)    Coolcing tim• (min):    llbout S

Wherein .. about.,. indic:atcs that tl'll!l value may wry by fl  small margin\on either side.

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