(11) Patent Number: KE 383
(45) Dole ofg"'" 05/05/2010
(ll)Application Number:KElP/ 2003/ 000377
(22) Filmg Date: 31/12/2003
(30) Priority data:
(86) PCT dataPCTIIN03/000428 31112/2003 WO 2005/063035 AI 14/07/2005
(73) Owner:COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH of Rafi M<rrg, New Delhi 110 001, India
(72) Inventor: SREEKANTAYYA, Nagalak:shmi; RAO, Lingamallu, Jagan, Mohan; NANJUNDASWAMY, Chandraserharand KUMAR Ramaswamy, Sharunughasundaram,Senthil,
(74) Agent/address for correspondence: Hamilton Harison & Mathews, P. 0. Box 30333-00100, Nairobi
(54) Title: ENZVMATIC PROCESS FOR PREPARING PACHA TAINT FREE TEA
(57) Abstract:The present invention provides an enzymatic process for the prevention of development of paeha Iaint in ere lea which comprises: (I) mixing an enzyme in water to form an enzyme solution; (II) spraying the enzyme solution homogeneously on rolled and distorted tea leaf)' material used in the black tea manufacturing process; (m) fermenting the enzyme solution sprayed rolled and distorted tea leafy material obtained at the end of step (II) (iv) drying the fermented material oblained in step (Ill). The enzyme can be mixture of any ofJipase. Iipoxygenase ancl alcoholdehydrogenase.
ENZYMATIC PROCESS FOR PREPARING PACHA TAINT FREE TEA
Field of the invention
The present invention provides a process for the preparation ofpacha taint free tea. In
particular, the invention provides a process using enzymes to prevent formation of pacha taint
ill CTC (Cru.ih T~ Curl) tea
Background of the invention
Tea is one of the most popular and earliest known beverages across the world. Tea
refers to the plant Camellia sinenesis; the dried, processed leaf manufactured from it, extracts
derived from the leaf; and beverages prepared from the leaf or extracts of this species. The
10 development of the most characteristic attributes of the tea, i.e. the flavour and colour of the beverage is dependent on the manipulation of tealeaves to induce certain biochem.iciU changes (Scott, 1964, Biotechnology, 5; 571). The starting material for manufacturing tea
consists of tender young shoots, usually two or three leaves and the bud of the tea plant. The
chemical composition .of these shoots and the reactions that Ocrur during the process
15 determine the nature of the finished product
During the processing and then storing, certsin off flavours along with desired
flavours develop in the tea 'Green note' is one such flavour. This off flavour which is
developed in storage after three to four weeks from manufacture is also called 'grassy', 'fiShy' or 'psinty' fuivour and commonly known as 'pacha taint' (Ganeshan and Ramaswamy, 1996,
20 February, The Planters Chronicle, p 91)
This type of off-flavour was reported in the Wynaad and Nilgiri-Wynaad regions of India during certsin periods of the year in CTC teas after 3-6 weeks of storage. When the teas
were fresh, professional tasters report these as normal Pacha taint has become a serious
concern for planters and traders ofteain the Wynaad and Nilgiri-Wynaad areas of India The
25 price of pacha-tsinted tea is low when compared to normal tea. Due to this problem, the product prices are less than compared to normal tea. Thus there is an wgent need to prevent
this problem of development of pacha tsinL
This taint or off flavour is increasingly becoming a menace in tea industry. This taint
occurs mainly during the storage after the manufacturing is accomplished. The chemical
30 constituents mainly responsible for the formation of this odour/taint are C. aldehydes and C. alcohols. These compounds are formed when the lipid degradation fullowed by fatty acid oxidation takes place. The lipids not degraded during the manufacturing process due to the less activity of respective enzymes and degrade during storage and off flavour is produced.
Several other factors enhance the development of grassy odour in tea, such as low
temperature of firing, increased plucking intervals, type and period of withering, rolling, fermentation etc. Various environmental conditions also have a role to develop this taint.
neterioratio~ of food with time results largely from its biological nature and is inevitable. During production, processing1 distribution and storage prior to actual r.o!lslJmption, food undergoes various modes of deterioration that involve biological changes by microbes as well as chemical changes. The latter is ascribed to enzymatic and non-
enzymatic oxidation of lipids and. phenolic substance, which cause undesirable changes in
flavour, appearance; physical character, nutritional value and toxicity. Deoxygenation,
airtight packing, and other techniques have solved some of these problems to a certain extent.
10 However, the addition of enzymes could be helpful to compensate the low activity of in situ enzymes during certain seasons.
Literature survey revealed that there is no report on the prevention of the development of off-flavour In tea.
Objects of the invention
15 The main object of the present invention is to provide a process for the prevention of
development of P'"'ba taint in CTC teas using enzymes.
Summary of the invention
Accordingly the present invention provides an enzymatic process for the prevention
of development of pacba taint in ere tes which comprises:
20 (i) mixing an enzyme in water to rOOn an enzyme solution;
(ri) spraying the enzyme solution homogeneously on rolled and distorted tea leafY material used in the black tea manufacturing process;
(iii) fermenting the enzyme solution sprayed rolled and distorted tea lesfY material
obtained at tire eud of step (ii)
25 (iv) drying the fermented material obtained in step (ili).
Iu one embodiment of the invention, the enzyme solution prepared in step (i) comprises a mixtnre of enzymes, which are suitsble for lipid degradation.
Iu another embodiment of the invention the step (ii) is carried out at a spray rate of
one litre of solution in5- 8 roinutes.
30 In yet another embodiment of the invention femrentation in step (iii) is carried out
while maintaining a temperature in tbe range of 25-JO"C and while mixing the tea material
In yet another embodiment of the invention, the tea material is dried in step (iv) using
a Fludised Bed Dryer and at a temperature in the range of 130 -140°C.
In yet another embodiment of the in:vention, the enzyme used in step (i) compnses a mixture of any of lipase, lipoxygenase, alcholdehydrogenase and materials containing the enzymes in optimized quantities selected from yeast and enzymes from soy bean.
Detailed description of the invention
The present in.ventiou provides a. process for the prevention of development of pacha taint in ere teas using enzymes. The process comprises preparing an enzyme solution in water or any appropriate solvent and spraying the enzyme solution homogeneously on the
rolled and distorted tea leafy material in the black tea manufacturing process. This material is then fermented and then dried and packed suitable. The packed material is stored and then
I 0 tasted by professional and qualified tasters to determine the level at which the development of
pacha taste is prevented.
The enzymes used are a mixture of lipid degrarllng enzymes such as lipase, lipoxygenase and alcholdehydrogenase I materials containing the enzymes in optimized quantities selected from the group of yeast, enzymes from soy bean. Spraying is preferably
15 done at a spray rate of spray one litre of solution in 5 - 8 minutes. Subsequently fermentation is carried out in a fermentor while maintaining the teruperature in the range of25-30"C and while mixing the tea msterial thoroughly. The dryer used for drying the fermented material is a Fluidised bed dryer, which could be,nsed at 130 -140"C. The dried material is packed in
polythene covers I !!UnRY bags with polythene thin film layer inside it. Storage of the packed
20 material is carried out at ambient conditions such as at 25~30Qe.
A process for the prevention of development of pacha taint in ere teas using
enzymes carried out according to following scheme.
Tea Fresh leaf
Rolling I DistoF ::~ :~:~:~:::::
SCIIEME l continued
Storage_ .. Sensory Evaluation
Sensory evaluation: Appearance of the product is observed. 3 g of Super Fine Dust (SFD) is brewed in 142 ml of boiling water for 5min. The colour, aroma and taste of the brew
15 are scored on a ten-point scale. The colour, aroma and• flavour of the infusion are also scored on a ten~point scale. Taster's remarks are presepted.
The advantages of the process are:
This is the first report of a process for the prevention of development of pacha t:aiJ1t in
ere teas using enzymes.
20 The novelty of the process resides in the use of mixture of enzymes for the prevention
of development of pacha taint in CTC teas.
Tealeaves (1500g) withered for 18 h. Leaves were subjected to distortion using rotarvane and CTC mach.ine. Twisted leaf is mixed with reconstituted tea material Enzyme
25 solution is sprayed manually onto the rolled/distorted tealeaf material and subjected to fermentation at 27"C for 60 min. Fermented leaves were subjected to drying in a Fluidised bed dryer at 135°C for 12. minutes until the moisture is reduced to 3%. Super fine dust is packed separately and kept for storage and then subjected to sensory evaluation at two weeks
interval up to twelve weeks. The scores are presented in the following table.
Tealeaves (500 Kg) withered for 20h. Leaves were subjected to distortion osing one
rotarvane and four CTC machines in series. Reconstituted tea material is mixed with leaf
during distortion. Enzyme solution is sprayed using power sprayer onto the roUedldistorted tealeaf material and subjected to fermentation at 27°C for 60 min in drums under special 35 conditions. Fermented leafy material was subjected to drying in a Fluidized bed dryer at
}35°C for 12 minutes until the moisture is reduced to 3%. Super fine dust is packed
separately and kept for storage. It was subjected to sensory evaluation at two weeks interval
for three months. The scores are presented in the following table.
CHEMICAL PARAMETES OF SFD SAMPLES FROM NILGIRI-WYNAD REGION:
Leaf Lipid Leaf Taster's
Lipid aldehyde Taster's
Samples aldehyde (%) Score
(%) (~g%) Score
(1'!1%) (After 4 after 4
(Initial) (After 4 Initial
(Initial) weeks) weeks
T2 -Control 7.43 2070 6.48 1778 8 4
T4- Enzyme combination 7.20 1513. 6.00 1190 7 7
T7 -Enzyme Combination 7.25 1399 6.81 1()76 7 7
TB -Control 7.43 2070 6.93 !886 8 4
After 4 weeks the taster s score remamed unaltered, mdicatmg the samples remamed good.
(11) Patent Number: KE 383