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(19).{H)btclll:Number: 374

(4S)Datufgrant  08/03/2010
                   
(!il)    lnl.O.II:  G 0:5B t!Wl, G 06F 17/40, 19/00
       
(!l).Ap,t;,tion    KElP! 2008/000748   

(84) WO No.    WO 2007/10!834 A2 !'fu!DM:r:            27/09fl007
       
(31)PrhrityNumber:    11!377.034   

(32)Do.te: 16103(2006  (33)Cou.ntJY:US

(73) Ovoer(s): JD HOLD[NG INC of Scotia. CeJttiC, 4th Floor, P. 0 Box 2804, George TOWI!, Grand Caynw, Cayman lshmd. Cayman islan<Js

(7l) lnnmtor(s)    WILLIAMS, Bradley, R. and HENNESSY, Timcthy David, John

(74) Aee11tl11.ddreg for corR!Ipondence:    Warum Associates, P. 0. Box 8925-00100 Nairo~i.

(!§4) title:    SYSTEM AND METHODS FOX A SELF-HEAI.JNO GRID USING DEMAND •
    SIDE MANAGE:MENT lECHNlQUES AND ENERGY STORAGE.
    A self-healing power grid c:ontrol gys1em includes a power grid having a plmlity CJf
    uo;;twoJrk ir.l=..l~ ..,.ith a pkolity rtS.ncar _.i n~-li.netV l<>~>.!.a. A plwelity <if ~o11.tro l
    sensors commtnlcale wltlllll.t> ~owu g:rl<l m monitor ID~:: clc~riQJ ~hM~cmtJ~~ uf
    !he power gnd. A plurality of colirDlled rela'!ffl are in electrical communicatim with
    the plurality of non-linear loads. A battery energy st0lf1gesy:item (ESS) is in
    electrical communication withtlE nain power source and a nctwQrk. island. A ftr&
    restoration controller is in elcctrEal communication with th~ control sensors:, the
    conuolled relays, and with the bat"my ESS. The first ra;toration controller ret.eive$
    control ~ignals from the cantrol .<ensurs. rutd in response to detecting an irregultrity
    in 1he power- grid, automatically ac-tuates the battery ESS to stabi!i.2e power to the
    linear loads, ancl disconnects :selecred cantrolled relays to disconneot po-wer to> a
    calculated percetli.age of the non-litear loads.
           
5Y5TEM AND METHODS FOR A 5ELF•HEALING GRJD USING DEMAND SIDE
MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND ENERGY STORAGE

Technical Field

(110111]    The  P""'""'  dioclo"'"'  relatas  to oeff-heallng  power grids,  and  more

specifically, to use of demand side manasement techniques wiUl battery energy

s1orage to lntelligontly self-heal a grtd.

Brtef Deacrlpdon of the Dravrtnge

[00~2]  The  prcent cmbodlmenta will  becom"  more fuly  apparent  frtlm  the

fulloviing  do~Scription and  appended  deime,  taken  in  ccnjunctlcn  with  the

a~panying drawings.   Underetandlng that the aacompanying drewinge depict

only typical embodiments and are, therefore, not to be considered to limit the ecope

of the disclosure, the embodlmenl9 will be described and explained v.lft:h apedflcfty and detail ill reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

[0003] Figure 1 Ia a circuit diagram of an embodiment af a self-healing grid using demand aida management control and energy storage;

[IOB-4]   Figure 2 is a circuft diagram cf an embodiment of partitioning network

ieland& of a networked power gri:t;

[OOD6]    Rgure 3 ia a flow diagram of an embodiment of a method for deciding on

effective corrective actions to aelf-heal a power grid from an ldQI'ltifiedIrregularity, to inckJda usa of demand eids management tedlniques and energy storage; and

[10D6)    Figure 4 is a flow diagram iDuatlating an embodiment of a methcxl far

continuously optimizing electrical power 1o a grid.

Detailed DesaiDtion ot Preferred ~mbodinents

[IDD7)    It will be readily understood that the components of the embcxllments as

generally described and Illustrated In the Figures herein could be arranged and designed in a ....;de variety of different confi9urations. Thus, the follc'Ning more detailed description of various embodimerrts, as represented in the Figures, is net int&nded to limit the soope of the invention, as daimed, but is merely representafive of various embodiments. While the various aspects of the embodiments are
presented in drawings, the drawings are nat necessarily drawn to  scala unless

speclncal~ Indicated.

[ODDS]    The phrases "conneded to," '"r;oupledto," and ~In communication with"

refer to any form of interaction between two or more entities, including mecllanical,

electrical,    magnetic,  electromagnetic,  fluid,   and  thermal  interaction.    Two

components may be coupled to each other even though they ara not in direct contact

wtt11 each otller.  Tha term "adjacent" relo11 to network ilema that are in electrical

communication with each other, and In a nearby section of an electrk::al gird. The term "In electrical communicatbn with" Is net to be construed to require coupling or ph)'Sical connection, but only electrical signal coordination or the ability to -mlk" electrically between components through e circuit or network.

[00011]    According to the Electric Power Research Institute's(EPRI) IE/ootrloiiy

Technology  Roadmep,  1[b]y  2020, th8  demand for premium  power -  now just

dewloping -will be pervasive throughout ewrv sector of the economy.~ Preliminarv

EPRI estimates indicate that the proportion of U.S. electricity requiring 9-nines reliability (power available 99.9999999% of the time) will grow from 0.6% of~ consumption to near1y 10% by 2020, Bll.d that the proportion requlr1ng ~es reliability vAll grow from about S-10% to nearty eo%. In contrast, tile average reliability of today' power ~at the plug" ia only about ~ea. Therefore, U.S. power grids need much improvement in the ned decade to meat future heightene~ demands of reliability.

[OOtfl)    In the event of a system grid fault, whether from 1oa~-based corx:litions or

from external foroes such as lightening, wind. or snow. the networt !rips and

customers are subjected to outages of \larying durations depen~ing upon whare the fault occurs and how hard It Is to repair. In radial systems, all loads downstream of a fault are equally Impacted. To reduce the dlJration of an outage, some form of local power ~eneration or eupply of a source of etored power may be employed after ensuring that the grid i8 first isolated. Tl"B latter prevents the generation or supply from feeding back into the total net\Nork. HCMaver, it would also be useful to predict an Irregularity before ft occurs, and to provide a fiX in the grid to prevent a system

fault

[0011]    An  intelligent,  se~•haallng g~d may  automate the  above  process of

e!TeCUvely resto~ng or stabiliZing power to a gr1d or goo section.  Automaton or tte

process allows for 1!:1 more liJffecttve and re&JX)n&lve power flow. It may also entlanc:e reliability while proyjding ouetomer eewloo during outage periods, as well as reduce operational and mainlenal'lCecosta white inereasing throughput on exlstln9 lines. A self•healing grid may also increase grid security In response to the thllilat of terrorism

because nwould eliminate the need for human Intervention lo res1ore s1abilily to a power grid.
[0012] To accomplish these benefits. a se~-healing grid may seek to, among olher things, dynamically and continuously optimize lhe performance and robustness of lhe system, qulcl<ly react to dlstur'oancesor iregulartties In such a way as to minimize impact, and quickly restore the system to a stable operating region, such as to maintain nominal voltage and frequency levels.

[0013] Figure 1 displays one embodiment to exemplify a se~-hea1ing grid system 100 of the disclosure, including a plurelily of grid restoration controllera 102 (or "restoration controller"). Each restoration controller 102 _may control delivery of power from a main power source 104to a saparete networt< island grid 106 having a plurelity of load types, including linear and nor>-llnear. Grid restoration controllere 102 may implement demand side management ("DSM')techniques, which will be explained. An electrically defined Island of a power grid may be herein variably refened to as "an island," a 'networt< island," or as a "grid Island' 106. The configuration of grid islands 106 will be addressed wnh referenos to Figure 2.

[0014] An Island may be located directty off a main power source 104, such as the top three islands 106 in Figure 1. An island may also ba daisy-chained where located In a distant section of a grid, as In the bottom right island 106 In Figure 1. Electrical power may Jnnistly pass, for each island 106 or branch of islands 106, through a main power transtom1er 106 to ensure proper voltage and current levels for sumclent power delivery to each island 106 or branch of islands 106.

[0015] The electrical power may then travel through an Isolation breal<er 110 before passing Into a g~d restora~on controller 102, the Isolation breal<er 110 being controllable by the restoration controller 1021n addition to being tr1pped In response

to power surges and the like.  Use of the restoration controner 102 may autanata

control  of each  Island  106,  and  facil-  rea~time seW-healing In  response  to

electrical  irregularities,  including  electrical  grid  faults  or  disturbances,  or  In

anticipation of the same.

[0016]    The electrical power may lhen pass to a plurality of loads within lhe circun,

as discussed. Theee loads may include linear load& 112, such that the power factor (the phase between the voltage and current~;through the load 112 remains at or near one. The remaining loads ere non-linear, having power factors other than one such that the current leads or lags the voltage. Such loads of particular interest include

indudl\le loads 114, pump motors 116, compressors 118, and others which, under loW voltage or restart conditions, would demand very large current from the network. lhe latter may Include other short term, non-critical, yet comparatlovely high power loads. Tile electrical power may pass, before passing through a non-linear load, through a controlled relay 120 so that the restoration controller 102 may tum on and off pOVJer to these loads as a way to stabilize power to the Island in the face of an
ii'T'Sgularity, including an electrical fault

[0017]    Having a power factor nearest to one witf'linthe island aa a whole during

.en outage will help an arn:illary powar solftee to deliver stabilized power to s grid island 108 for a longer period. This is because disconneding large less critical indudNe loads, such as those used for c:omrnerr.ial purposes, will reduce peak loads

'Ihlenoperating In an Isolated manner. Th\s allows auxiliary power (including battery storage) to supply Ule remaining more linear loads in a more expansive and col'1sistent mamer than wcukl be otherwise possible. To accomplish this, the restora1ion controller 102 may calcolate the percentage number of non-linear load!

that need to be disconnected via conjrolled relays 120, up to on&-hundn>d peroent,

to ensure an effective action with regard 1o the power factor and the peak possble

power demands coming from the grid ~land 106.

[001!1 A plurality of sensors 122 rray aleo be used throughout the power grid to monitor the elactrical charactar1s1ics of each ieiand 106, such as voltage, current.

frequency, harmonics, etc., and to also rnonrtor the condfllon of a1tlcal electr1cal

component&, and relay this information tc one or more restoration controllers 102.

Thus, each resto~t~tion controller 102 is in ~cal communication with one or more sensors 122. Sensors 122 may be In electrical communication with critical electrical components such as transformers 108, lsola1ioo breaken1 110, and feeders, amorgst ethel'S. Also, the re.storatlon controller 102 may have voltage and llna sensors (not
shown) Internally to monitor tha <lovm-stream networ1< or each Island 106, thus

dynamically sensing changes in load requirements.

[0019]    The gr1d restcratlon controller 102 may than effectuate a positiVe, sell'~

hoaling reepon:se to an affeGted leland 101) by continuously receiving monitoring eig11al& from sensors 122, and enabling e real-time response to even the alighk:ttlt irregularity. Thia allows the grid system 100 to also compensate for, or correct, minor disturbances in an electrical grid bebre they cause larger disruption, includng a falit that may dleconnect main powe-r 104 to an entire grid island 106. Potential

dis1urbances could be a transfonner 108 with unusual gassing activHy or a cable

termination with higher than nonnal partial discharge.  The seW-healing aystem 100

maY  also  continuously  tune  itself  to  achieve  an  optimal  state  baeed  on

predetennined crlle~a. raganlleaa o1 whataver lrregularlllea are preaent.  To aid the

system 100 in this salt-tuning and sell-flealing, a battery energy storage system ("ESSj 124 may be employed for a. backup pONer source.
[0020] In oonjunctlon with each network Island 108, a battery ESS 124 may be located generally between an isolation breaker 110 and a reatoraUon controller 102.
In addition, a Mtch 128 m;y be poaitionad belwMn the battery ESS 124 and the restoration controller 102 to enable the restoration controller 102 to actuate the

balteTY ESS 124, or to turn ~of!. The restoration oonlroller 102 may alae control the

battery ESS 124 to aQow automatic compensation In the Island 1OB for disturbances,

vohage variations, load Imbalances, and the:llke, that may occur.

[OOZ1]    The switch 126 and the reotoootlon controller's102 oontrol of the batleJY

ESS 124 may be optional, however, beCBiuse $0Me battery ESSs have built-in power cor1trol systeme that continuously compensate for disturbanoes, vottage variations, and load imbalances based on voltage and lne sensors integrated within tfle battery
ESS 124.  One such system Is a vanadium radox battery energy storage sy&;tem 124

("VRB-ESS'). A VRB-ESS 124 mav include an intelligent. progremmable. four quadra'tpower converter (PCS), which is able to contlnuauslv monttor the power grid 100 parameters against set points of operation, and to adjust its reactive power
and real power outputs continuously.  This ~rovkle& power quality compensation to

wltage dip&, harmonics, and vottage fllck.er fran, e.g., motor &1arta, and provide&

voltage sup~ evan when charging tho storage element ol the VRB-ESS 124.  In

these aspects, the VRB-ESS 124 may act as a FACTS (Flexible AC Tranamiuioo

System)  device.    A  FACTS  device  enablea  utilities  to  reduce  bansmissioo

congestion wtthout compromising the reliab~ and security of the system.

[0022]    1hus, use ala VRB-ESS 124 may obviate the need tor the swftch 126, or

for the neea to integreta with 111e restoration controller 102 the vonage ana line

sensors ard compensation control circuitry. HDWeVer, even with a VRB-ESS 124 ellltloyed at a gl1d lsland 1oe, a restoration controller's102 abHity to control tte VRB-ESS 124 extemalty may be etiK required In order 10 help compensate, In a coordinated effort, fer an lrregulartty In an adjacent grkt Island 108. ThiB aspect of a self-healilg grid 100 will be discussed later with reference to Figure 4.

[00231 Energy stonoge systems 124, oucll as ndlargeabte bllllerieo, are beneficial for remota power ayatams that are supplied by, for instance, wind turbine generatora or photovonatc arrays. VRS:.ESSa 124 have received favorable attention

because they promise to be lna.xpenstve and possess many features that provide fer

long ltfe, flexible design, high reliability, and low operation and ma"intenance coste.

The VRB-ESS 124 relies on a pumping flew system to pass anotyte and catholyte

soh.Jtiom  tllrough  its  cells.   In  operating  8 VRe..ESS  124,  flow  rates,  internal

temperatures, pressure, charging and di&charglng tlmee are all factora that influence

power output.

[0024!    A s~nlficant advantage of a \IRB-ESS 124 is tho! I only takes lhe same

time period to recharge t11e VRB-ESS 124 as ft does to discharge it.  ConvenUonal

lead aci:l batteries may take over five times their discharge rating to recharge, Thus,

a four-hour rated lead add battery may require 20 hou" or more to recharge.  In a

24-hcur period, a four-hour rated VRB-ESS 124 will be able to fully discharge and charge three times versus just one charge with a lead acid battery. In a 24-hou-perbd, a lead acid battery may be able to only der.ver power for four hoUJ8 with any cerl:ainty. A lead acid battery risks power ~livery if repeated faults occur on a grid after an initial discharge. With a VRB-ESS 124, power delivery is more available.

[00261 Repeated heavy dischariiOB also reduce 111e life of t11e lead acid batlery. A VRB-ESS 124 does nat d~e like a ead acid battery after muftiple uses. Furthermore, de1ennlnlfll 111e a110iisble state-of-charge (SOC) of a lead ackl battery requirBS that n be dlocharged under lood. A VRB-ESS 124 Is able to provide an
absolute SOC of its available energy at al time& in addition to being more efficient

than  lead acid batteries.   For more inforrration  on the VRB-ESS  124, see U.S.

Patent Application Serial Number 11/2:34,778, flied September 23, 2005, whicll is

herebf incorporated by reference.

[110261 Fgure 2 displays a power grid, Which may comprise two or more networi: i,;andB 106. For lna1anoa, a geographically large island 202 may be seclioned off because I covers more rural areas and so tess power wm be requireCI per square mlle. In contras~ a geographically small Island Z04 may be sectioned on as an leland 106 becauee It covers a more . urt:J.~~• densely populated region. This Is referrecl to as Intelligent Islanding or secttcn)ng, which may be used to automatically separate the grid system 100 into self-sustaining parts, or Iaiande 1oe, to maintain electricity supply for customers according to specified priorities, and to prevent

blackouts from spreading.  Where the islands 106 interoect 206 are likely places to

have pre-located isolation breakers 110 (not shown) or automated island switches {nat shown) with which to provide means to isolate adjacent grid lslande, such ae
202 end 204 In Figure 2, In lhe cess of grid irregularly or o blackout of one of tho

grids 202 or 204.

(0027) To determine where to draw the lines of each island, a set of !lmuJations may be run to determine the best systeJ?...:configuration based on actual system conditions. These simulations may Include power delivery prtorlties, such as detenninlng which non-linear lo~de are most expendable during an irTegularity, including a fauH which requires to switch, In whole or in part, to a battery ESS 124 for power to the island 106. The simulation may be carried out through the use of

computer software into which sets of load data create load  profiles and through

which power flow may be modelad.

[00281    Figure 3 is a flow diagram of an embodiment of a method 300 for deciding

on  effective  corrective  actiona  in response 1o an  Irregularity.   The method 300

includes DSM techniques and energy storage to qulckty restore a setf-healing grid 100 to a stable operating region. The method 300 monitors 302 the electrical characteristics of power grid islands 106, Including the critical electrical components. The monitored characteristics may Include the vottage, CUIT&nt, frequency, harmonics, etc. at different points in the power grid. In one embodiment of method
300, a plurality of power gri! Islands 1~ m~.Y be definad 304 according to simulatad

power delivery priorities based on actual pOwer grid 100 conditions, as discussed

above with reference to Figures 1 and 2.  This adaptive, intelligent islanding ensures

the grld system 100 is sectionad Into seW-sustaining perls, or Islands 106, that may be suppliad by battery ESS 124 (or other auxiliary power) while providing electricity to prioritized loads and preventing blackouls from spreading_

[00291 Method 300 may estimate 306 state and topology with the rea~time monitored elec1rical characteristics of the power grid 100, \\tlich may include the individual state and topology of each configured grid island 106. Once an lnegularity, such as a grid disturbance or lauiL is detected 308, the seW-healing power grid 100 may identify 310 the Irregularity. The detection 308 of an irregularity

may inclUde anticipating that an irregulaily. may arise, or that a minor disturbance

may grow into a worse condi1ion, potentially fauH-causing.  Thus, once identified 31 0,

the  aevertty  and  resultng  consequences  of  the  identifted  Irregularity  may  be

assessed 312 to dele""ine lhe quickress of response required to return stability to the gnd 100, or to avoid unacceptable Instability. This assessment 312 may be accomplished wtlh the use of look-ahead oomputer simulations of the power 1bw
through the saH-healing grid 100 in real tlrre, actual conditions.

[OOSO)    The method 300 may further include identifying 314 corrective action with

use cf similar computer simulations for extrapolating tne Irregularity throughout the

plurality of power grid Islands 108. If thia correctiva action haa been pre-detemlined

as the most effective correction action for a slven irregularity, the relevant restoration

controller  102.  may  automatically  implemant  318  the  correcUve  actions  once

Identified 314. In addition, certain lrregularitiBS may trigger automatic implementation 316 once the irregularity is Identified 310. In the absence of such well-defined correctiVe action for a giVen irregulsrlly, the operator or restoration controller 102 may decide 31 B on the most effective conecllon action. This decision-

making, given the state and topology of the grid 100 aOO the irregularity pr95ent, may

Include  interacting  320  witn  consumers.   Consumera  may  participate  in  the

implementation of self-healing operating scenarios to beet eerve the consumers that

may be affected by any giVen corrective adicn.

[110311 The COITective actions chosen by an opera1or or a restollltion controiiS' 102 may include employing 322 autanated DSM control techniques and possibly actuating 324 a IJaltery E66 to provide a se~-llealing, seamless controlled response. The DSM tedmiques may further inclu:fe, in additbn to those well-known In the art,
disconnecting 326 power to a calculated percentage of non-linear leads, for the

rea&OI'l&discussed with reference to Figure 1.  Once the restoration controller 102 a

other  regulator  In the  grtd  Island  106 de1ects  328  stabilization,  the  restoration

controller  may  use  330  synchronization  control  to  close  any  tripped  Isolation

b~eai<Brs 110. This would havalhe eflecl of,bringing the grid island 106 ba::k online again to be suppled by a main power sou1ca 104, whicl1 woulcl make the island grtd 1oe able to function at or near capa::lty, lnelldlng supplying non-nnear loads during

peak ~ewer draM. Thus, the restoration controller 102 may reconnea: 332 power to previously di:tconnecled non-linear loads on«:;e the grid Island 100 llas tllus

stabilized.

[D032J Finally, the battery ESS 124 may be rectnuged 334 if it was previowly employed, to return the grid island 106 to a stable operating condition. HCJWe:wr, note that the battery ESS 124 may also be used during non-fault conditions to

piOYide for continuous optinizatioo af the grid system 100, and thus may also be

rec:barged Dn a oontinuolJB basis.

[CJ0l3)    Figure 4 Is a flow  diagram  Illustrating a method 400 for contlnuo\Biy

optimizing electrk:al pc!YI8r to a grid. 011a! thBI state and topology of a self-haa~nG grid 100 is esti'nated306, as discussed will reference to Figure 3, a self-healing grid 100 may also optlmlze402 electr1cal power. To do so, a restoration controller 102

(Clr a VRB-ESS) may al.domstically adjust 4()1. a battery ESS 124 In the grid n~rk

100, ;pacifically to supply rRquirad pClWBr to. aaeh alfvcioc:l grid island 103, to mairrta.in stability thereil. This win enhance reliability and availahDity tc the graatest:

number of consumers of electrical power an an on-going basis.

[DDl41    Control may be implemented 111 such a way as to coordlnats the rapid

compensation provided by a VRB-ESS 124 In order to meet required IEEEIA.NSI

s1andards.  This may typically involve the ~lllation of lima dalaya, set points, and

coordllated control of tap-changers d  bettery ESSs 124 via a power Rna cartrol

which may be the PCS embedded In ttle VRB-ESS 124 as discussed previoua~.

Slldl  COClrdlnatlon  may be  elfec:tuatecl  by  multiple  restoration  controllers  102

retaning electrical communication amorgst aech other. Thua, one grid island 106 may help another grid island 108 canpensate. especially where ons at the c:Jrid

islands 106 is not aflecled by an irregular'lyand is adiacent an affected alid ~land

1Q6.  Tllus, a two stage conUOiloop may be Implemented to execute continuous

optimization, u follows.

[00~51 A fast-acting, or dynamic, control atgortthm may be implemented 4oe, which will allow the VRB-ESS 124 to volmgo compensate 408 against set points d

the self-hesnng grid 100.  sensed voHaQe and'orcurrent revere are fed to the VRB-

EBS  124 from several points wtthln a grtt Island 106 via radio waves.  Hence, a

dynamic compensation at both power and reactlva energy will be injected ilto the

aetf-heallng gr1d 100 to control downstream and upstream voltages alike, to enable

quick aotlon to actual or prodlcte<l lneg,IS111es and to retain tile stabilitY of tho

multlplegriCI Jslands100.

[CIOaGJ    A alower dng, or lorati.-a, ~~ atsorithm mliiY be lmplelmcnted -410

ain~ltaneous!y whereby the downati'Qa.mrettoratkm controllera 102 are parrnltted,

after defined time delays, to continuousty adjust 412 the  battery ESSe 124 In ords-

tc bing the system voltages into line will regulations.  Feedback to the  battery or

VRB--ESS 124 will EIIIIJIN reetoration controll~n 102 to Iteratively adjust voltage by
uae of a slew rate, or smoothing funcllon, Vthi:tl may be applied to ensu~ that an

average voltage Is reached and to pi"EEWrt voltage hunting from occurring.  /ls an

additional output, the load optlnHil.g algorithm may be developed for a sell'~heillhg

grid 11)0, which would deternine 414 the optimal tlmee and durations to of'largeS'ld

dSdlerge the  VRB-ESS 124 to proc:llce both favorable technical and  economl<:

optimization. To do so, a self-healing grk:i 1~0 may be measured over a year'stime

or  more,  to  see the progress of the algorlthrna  employed,  and  to  adjust  tie

alg~rtthme for groak:lr optlnl~n.

[OCU7]    While epeoifio embodiment& and a~plicatione of tho diocJo~ro hervo been

illustrated and described, it ia tc l:la underatood that the dleciOI!IUre is not limited to the precise configuration and components d8closed herein. Verloua modlficatiollSo chartQE~s. and variaUore apparent to 1hoss !'Jf skill In Dle art may be made in 1he
alf'S'lQement,operation, and details of tile methods and systems of the dieciOBure

Wlttol.lt departing from 1he spirit and scope ofthe diacloeure.

1.    A power glid control system, comprising:

a transmission and distrlbutlcn electrical power grid having a pluraiHy of network islands, the network islands having a plurality of linear and non-linear loads;
a plurality of control sensors In communication with the power grid to

mooiiDr the elecbical charactenslics of the power gnd;

a plurality of controlled relays in electrical communicatlon v.ith the plurality or non-linear loads;

a battery energy storage s:.stem In electncal communication IMth a

rna~ IK'W8rsource and a netwol1!;; island; and

a nrst restoration coiltrolter in electrical communlcatk:ln wtth the plurality

at control sensol"8, controlled relays, and with the battery energy storage eyatem, the

first restorauon controller to receiVe cortrol sii)nals from the plurality of control serBon~, and In response to detecting an irregularity in the power grtd, automatically actuating the battery energy storage system to maintain nominal voltage and frequency to the linear loads, and disconnecting selected controlled relays to dlswnnect power to a cat:ulated pen;entage ot the non-linear loads.

2.    The oontrol 5ystem of claim 1, wherein tne nrat restoration controller

returns the power grid to a normal c:onfigulli'UIJnafter the Irregularity Is cured.

The c:ontrol eyetem  of claim 2, wherein the  lrregulartty Is a tripped

isolation breaker or switch, and whereir1 the first re&taration controller detects grtd

stabilization and then uses synchronizatioll  control to dose the bippect ieola~on

breaker.

4.    The control ayatem of clalm ~tJ wherein the first restoration c:ontroiBr,

subsequent to restonrtion of the tripped isolation breaker, reconnects the selected

disconnected controlled relays to return power to the disconnected norHinear loads.

s.    The control syetam of daim  1, wherein the battery energy stor~~t~e

system Is a vanadium redox battery.
e.    The control aystem of claim 1, furtl'leroomprising a eocond rostoratbn

controller in electrical communication with the firat reetoratlon controller to caordinate

response to the irregularity between two network islarx:la.


7.    Tile control system of claim 1-"",whereln the plurality of network islands

are defined  according to a computer  aimi.Jiallon ar toad data or. 1he  power grtd

matcted with a set ar specific power delivErY priorities.

13.    llle control syatem ot clam 1, wherein the first a1oration controller

detec3 grid stabilization and then recharges the battery energy e:torage system.

Q.    The control system of claim 1, wherein the non-linear loads includes

pump motors.

10.    The control sYStem of claim 1. wherein the non-Uneer load ineludu an

a1r cor~amoner.

11.    1'tle:control system or cla_lm 1, Yftleraln the non•linear k>ad Includes a

compressor.

12.    The controlsyatem ol claim 1, Vtherein the non•llnear load includes a

sllort...term, non-critical, yet comparatively high f)O'Nerload.

13.    A method for power grid oorrtro~ comprising:

monitoring    electrical   cha"'~riatlc:s,  including   critical   eled:r1cal

components, of a pluralb'of Islands of a power grid;

estimating  Btata  and  topology  of the  Islands  with  the  monitored

ettctrical characleristk::e through computer simulation of power 1bW tllrougll  the

p...,rgrld;

detc<rting em ifTCigulmrlly In en alre!Oted leland; Ellnd

optimizhs  eledrical  power delivery to  eac:l1  leland  baeecl  on  the

efittmated  alate  and  topology,  or in  reap~nse to  the  de1ected  Irregularity,  by

automa.tlcal!y adjusting the amount Of Sl:lditi()fiBf power available th~Vugh a battery

energy storage eyslem In elec:trical commur~ication with tt.:l effected Island.

14.    The method of claim 13, wherein the bl!lttary energy etorage eystem is

a venadlum redox battery.

15.    The method of claim 13, -..lo the plurafity of lslaods are de!ired

according to e computer oinulaticm of loed d&bl. gf the pCW~;~r grid matched with a set
en a~c power delivory priori6ce.    J    ......

18.    The ml;l:hod of claim 13, furtht.r oomprialng Implementing a dynamlo

atJorithm that  uses t11a battery anergy s.tQrage system to \ICitaga compensate

agalnat a plurality of Bat points fed to "the algorithm from a corresponding plurality cl

locations in the grid leland.
 

17.    The method of chlim 13, further comprlalng Implementing Em iterativf3

algorithm to continuously adjust the battery energy storage  system's output by

datermiling optimal times and durations to charge and discharge the bat!Bry energy
storage system.

18.    A  computer  readable  medium  having  stored  thereon  complJter

exec•table instructions for pedorming a method for power grid control, the method

compri5lng:

monitoring    electrical  characteristics,  Including  cr~cal  electrl::ol

components, of a plurality of Islands of a power grid;

estimating etate and topcdogy of the Islands with the monitored electrical characteristics through computer eimuiErtlon of power now through the power grid;

detecting en irregularity in an afrec:ted island; and

optimizing electrical power delivery, controlling voltage and frequency, to each island based on the estimated state and topology, or in response to the detected irregularity, by automatically adjLSting the amount of additional poW&' available through a battery energy storage system in electrical c;ommunlcatton with

tile affeot~d island.

19.    The  computer  readable  medium  af  claim  18, the  method  furttn;~-

oomprieing implementing a dynamic alg~l'lt!T that usos the battery energy fiorege

sygiem to voltage compensate against a plurality of eet poiom fed to the algorithm

from a corresponding plurality of locations in the grid Island.

20.    The  comp•ll>f  readable medium  of claim  1S,  the  method  further

compl'i&lngimplementing an iterative algorithm to continuouaty adjust the battery energy storage system's ou1put by ctetermining optimal tiTles and c:Jurationa to charge and discharge the battery energy storage system.
21.    The method af claim 13, furthar comprieing: identifying the nature of the in-egularity;

assessing the severity and pc'bilntialconaequances of the irregularity;

ldentifyjng corrective actions with simulations of the irragularity exlnlpoatec throughout the power grid;

deciding an effective correci:Ne action; and

employing automated demand side management contml techniques to

dSronnea power to a calaJiated percel'l'lEgeof non-linear loads Df tile affected

l&a~d and to stabilize pOINer delivery 1o the remaining connected loads, whereby

edending the dul'!ltionof talanded operalkn.

22.    The meth!XI o1 Claim 21, wtJEf'Bindeciding the most effeetive corredJvt

a~on indudes Interacting with c;cnsurnerv.

23.    The method af clam 21, furtbel oompri9ing automatically lmplernen11n;t

tf'eelfectjye corrective action upon identifb&tjon of the corrective action.

24.    The mett1XI af claim 21. wterein the ITTBUulartly I!!! :!II tripped ~ol=-t.flon

breaKer, tnat ISOlates me ISIBna ttom a main power source, and wherein empiD}'ina

a\lt.ma:teo    oemand  side  managemenl••control   techniques  'l'urtherlncludea.

a\ltumalically turning on the battery ene111y sbrage system to 1e'flllor&rllyreplace the

mah ~O"Ner source.

25.    The method  of claim 24,  fulther oolf1)fising detecttlg  affeded island

81abillmtlon and employing ayncnronizatb~ control to close ttie tripped ieolation

breaker.

26.    The method of dalm 215, furtha- compi1Bing reoonnectl~g pooNer to the

dlsconneela:l non-linear loads.

zr. The mettlxl of claim 21, fUrther comprising, ln IBEIIJOnse to detectina restnatiDn aml statJIIIzitllon ur me anecun 1s1ana WIUI a mam power source,

~arsina the battery onargy etoraga opWm.

28.    A msthotJ for power grici conircl of a power grti ha'llfnglinear and non-

lilellrload6, tha method comprlablg:

in response to detecting a porver grid irregularity, automat1cally:

identifying the nalun! of tl;te Irregularity;

aeeea51ng  the  eeverly  end  potential  COI18equence&  o1  the

imgUarity;

Identifying corrective aclor~e wi1h simulation& of the irregul~ity

extrapolated within an etfected portion ofttc pCMr gricl;

c:looldlng an cfl'cotifc am~:miYC e~~on; ond

turning  on  11   botb;ry  on~Jrgy otorago  o~m to  replaoc  e1

di8c:onnacted main power aaurce or au~;~lllEntadisrupted main pa~~er aource.

29.    The method gf claim 2tl,  Mereln del'ectlnga pcwar grid irregularity

lrul\ldli't &~nticipatins a power grid iiT&Qulariy before the Irregularity ooours.

30.    The meltlod of clalm 26, fui!her comprising  employing autamatad

domsn.d side management control ted\nlques m disconnect power to a calculated

percentage of non-linear  loads  of the a'fecled  grid  portion  and  stabize power

deli'leryto a pk..lrality of J8Tlaining conred:ed laMia.

31.    The method af daim 30, whsrein In re~Sponee to <letectJng power gld

s'lalliliz.aUon,the method further comprising I'Silonnectingpower to the <li&o::~nnecleKI

non-linear loada

:32.    Tha method of cleim 28, wherein the irregularity is a tripped llolatlon

breaker. the method further  comortsina <lelectina power arid stabilization and

ernptoyi'lgsynch!Onlzaaon control to close the tripped Isolation DreaKer.

~3.  A  computer  readable  medh.m  having  atored  thereon  computer

executable Instructions for performing a mEtt»d for power grki control of a poW&"

grid hENing linear an:! ron-lilear loads, tllensthcd comprising:

in reeponae to detecting a power Qrii Irregularity, automatically:

Identifying the natun1 of,tle lrregularily;

assessing  the  severity  and  potential  consequences  of  the

irregularity:

ident/fving corrective actions with simulations of the irregulaity extrapolated wsttnn an a1l'ectedportion ottlie power gnll;

declcllng an eiTectlve OJrrectlve action; and

turning  on  a  batlel)  energy  etorage  system  ro replace. Ill

d'8connected main power eouroe or augment e dlarupted main power source.

34.    The  canputer  readable  ~nedlum or claim  33, the  method furtiler

comprising:

omplayilg automated dom11rd side manegemont control teohniquee W

disconnect power to a catculated percefllage of non-linear loads of the affected gri!J

pmilon alld stabilize power delivery to a plural~ llf remainilg connected lol!lds.


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