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(11)Patent Number: 366
(45)Date of grant: 16/12/2009
(12) PATENT
(51) Int.C1.7: A 23F 3/16, C 12N 15/82
(21)Application Number:  KE/P12002/00214   
(84) WO No. WO 2003/080845 A2
                      02/10/2003
(22) Filing Date: 26/03/2002
(31)Priority Number:   
(32) Date:
(33) Country:
(73)  Owner(s): COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH of Anusandhan Bhavan 1, Rai Marg, New Delhi 110001, India
(72) Inventor(s):SANDAL, Indra; BHATTACHARYA, Amita; GULATI, Ashu; RAVINDRANATH, Srigiripuram Desikackar and AHUJA, Paramvir   Singh
(74)    Agent/address for correspondence: Waruinge & Waruinge Advocates, P. O. BOX 72384-00200, Nairobi
(54) Title:USE OF TEA LEAF EXTRACT FOR INHIBITING MICROBIAL
TRANSFORMANT.
(57) Abstract: The present invention relates to an efficient and cost effective use of preventing growth of genetic transformant bacteria Agrobacteriurn tumefaciens after transformation in plants by using tea leaf extract as a bactericide, wherein said use leads to elimination of common problem of polyphenol oxidation during transformation and thereby helps maintain regeneration potential in explants and also helps in increased transformation efficacy.
 
USE OF TEA LEAF EXTRACT FOR INHIBITING MICROBIAL TRANSFORMANT
Technical Field
The present invention relates to using tea leaf extract as a bactericide for preventing
growth of genetic transformant bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens after transformation in plants by wherein said use leads to elimination of common problem of polyphenol oxidation during transformation and thereby helps maintain regeneration potential in explants and also helps in increased transformation efficacy.

Background Art
'Transgenics' appear to be the 'need of the hour' in view of the ever growing demand for
quality crops all over the world (Somerville C.R. 1994. In: Production and Uses of
Genetically Transformed Plants, Chapman and Hall, London (eds. Bevan M.W., Harrison
R.D., Leaver C.J.).
Transgenic production through genetic transformation of plants is brought about by introducing desired gene(s) from any living organism into the concerned plant by different methods of DNA delivery in order to impart different traits for crop improvement viz. disease and pest resistance, longer shelf life, better and added nutritional value, varied colours and scents, tolerance to abiotic stresses like drought, flood, cold, salt etc.
Of the different methods of gene delivery into plants, the most popular and cost effective is producing transgenics through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. By this method explants that have the ability to regenerate into full grown plants under tissue culture conditions are infected with the disarmed and engineered strains, of the soil bacteria 'Agrobacteriurn tumefaciens' containing the desired engineered genes. Once the infection has occurred, the virulence genes of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens gets triggered and this enables the bacterium to pass on the T-DNA containing the desired engineered gene into the plant cell/nucleus and finally the desired engineered gene gets integrated into the plant genome which then becomes genetically transformed.
For successful and high frequency of genetic transformation of plants, fresh actively
growing cultures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the engineered and disarmed T-DNA is generally grown for 12-16 hr at 25-30°C and 150-200 rpm in dark upto its log phase of growth when the cell density becomes 1X109 cells/ml. The explants are then infected with these fresh cultures and allowed to incubate for a few days at optimal temperature and pH so that the T-DNA with the desired engineered gene is passed on to plant cell/nucleus which finally gets integrated into the plant genome. Once the gene is integrated either transiently or stably into plant genome, the residual Agrobacterium tumefaciens needs to be eliminated totally or else the residual Agrobacterium overgrows on the explant and prevents it from regenerating into a healthy plant and in severe cases even kills the explants.
A serious drawback of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation protocols is the requirement of high cost and labour intensive steps of washing and subsequent repeated culturing of transformants onto a medium containing expensive bactericidal antibiotics in order to kill Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These repeated washings and sub-culture involving bactericidal antibiotics not only result in vitrification of the transformants but also in their loss due to severe bacterial overgrowth. The problem is so severe that about 50% of the transformants are lost due to bacterial overgrowth and many a times, the generally employed bactericidal antibiotics fail to prevent this loss at feasible doses.
In a preliminary study, crude leaf extracts were found to have a bactericidal effect on the
is overgrowing Agrobacterium tumefaciens after co-cultivation, yet another important problem that was encountered was the loss and death of transformants due to phenol oxidation. It was therefore, necessary to optimize a concentration or composition of tea leaf extract that would not only kill the residual Agrobacterium tumefaciens after the transfer and integration of its T-DNA into the plant genome but would also overcome the problem of loss and death of the explants due to phenol oxidation.
Tea leaves contain high levels of polyphenols which are composed of 6 types of catechins (C) and their derivatives viz., epicatechin (EC), gallocatechins (GC), epigallocatechins (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECg), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg). Besides polyphenols, tea leaves also contain caffeine, amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds, vitamins,
inorganic elements, carbohydrates and lipids (Chu D-C and Juneja L.R. General chemical composition of green tea and its infusion. In: Chemistry and Application of Green Tea. 1997. CRC Press, N.York. eds. Yamamoto T., Juneja L.R., Chu D-C, Kim M.). Tea polyphenols are known to show several biochemical activities such as inhibition of bacterial mutation (Kada T., Kaneka K., Matsuzaki T. and Hara Y. 1985. Detection and chemical identification of natural biomutagens. A case of green tea factor, Mutation Research 150: 127), inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase activity (Nokane H. and Ono K. 1990. Differential inhibitory effects of some catechins derivatives on the activities of human immuno-deficiency virus reverse transcriptase and cellular deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acid polymerases, Biochemistry 29: 2841-5).
Tea polyphenols have shown anticaries effects by inhibiting the adherence of P. gingivalis onto buccal epithelial cells at concentrations 250-500µg/ml which is much larger compared to the effective concentrations of antibiotics (Sakanaka S., Aizawa M., Kim M. and Yamamoto T. 1996 Inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols on growth and cellular
adherence of an oral bacterium Porphyromonal gingivalis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 60: 745; Sakanaka S. 1997. Green tea polyphenols for prevention of dental caries In: Chemistry and Application of Green Tea. eds. Yamamoto T., Juneja L.R., Chu D-C, Kim M.). Tea polyphenols have also been reported to possess antiviral activity dependent on the galloyl moiety linked by ester linkage in catechin molecule (John T.J. and Mukundan P. 1979.
Virus inhibition by tea, caffeine and tannic acid. Indian J. Med. Res. 69: 542; Nakayama
M., Toda M., Okubo S. and Shimamura T. 1990. Inhibition of influenza virus infection by
tea. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 11: 38). Huang and Frankel, 1997 (Huang S-W and Frankel
E.N. 1997 Antioxidant activity of tea catechins in different lipid systems. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45: 3033-8) have reported antioxidant activity of tea catechins in liposomes. Also tea catechins have been reported to scavenge the oxidative radicals that cause damage to the DNA (Yen G-W. and Chen H-Y. 1995. Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenecity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 27-32), and their oxygen
radical absorbing action with antiproliferative action in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells (Lin Y-L., Juan I-M., Chen Y-L., Liang Y-C. and Lin J-K. 1996. Composition of polyphenols in fresh tea leaves and associations of their oxygen-radical-absorbing capacity with antiproliferative actions in fibroblast cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44: 1387-94).
Saeki et al. 1999 (Saeki K., Sano M., Miyase T., Nakamura Y., Hara Y., Aoyagi Y. and
Isemura M. Apoptosis-inducing activity of polyphenol compounds derived from tea catechins in human histiolytic lymphoma U937 cells. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 63: 585-7) have recorded the apoptosis inducing activity of polyphenols of tea as evidenced by inhibition of DNA ladder formation and chromatin condensation in human histolytic lymphoma cells. Antimicrobial activity of green tea extract has also been well documented at minimum inhibitory concentration or MIC (2504µg/ml to 1000µg/ml) for several micro-organisms that are harmful to human health (In: Chemistry and Application of Green Tea. 1997. CRC Press, New York. eds. Yamamoto T., Juneja L.R., Chu D-C, Kim M.). Crude tea leaf extract thus, appears to be a potent agent for bactericidal
 
formulations during genetic transformation, once the problem of phenolic oxidation and hence death of the transformants is alleviated.
One of the problems encountered during plant tissue transformation with A. tumefaciens is
the effective elimination of the bacterium after transfer of the transgenes has taken place.
When using Agrobacterium as a tool in plant genetic engineering, there is a risk that if not all bacteria are eliminated after transformation, the residual bacteria will kill the transgenic plants. Therefore, strategies in genetic transformation generally require a balance between the bactericidal activity and the normal morphogenetic response of transformed tissue. Different reports on these problems include the report by Colby and to Meredith (Colby S.M. and Meredith C. P. Kanamycin sensitivity of cultured tissues of Vitis Plant Cell Reports 9(5): 237-40) who used the bactericidal antibiotic carbenicillin for killing residual Agrobacterium tumefaciens during genetic transformation but the drawback of their report was that carbenicillin had inhibitory effects on plant regeneration which sometimes resembled those of growth inhibitors.
Also, Park et al., 1990 (Park Y. G., Shin D.W., Kim J. H. 1990. Journal of Korean
Forestry Society 79(3): 278-84) used a combination of cefotaxime (200 mg/litre) and carbenicillin (300 mg/litre) for Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Populus nigra X P. maximowiczii leaves. The drawback of the protocol was that although, the growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain 6044 was reduced, yet, the residual Agrobacterium
tumefaciens was not totally eliminated and the rate of regeneration was also as low as 10%.
Yurkova et al., 1993 (Yurkova G. N., Chugunkova T. V. and Shevtsov 1. A. 1993.. Effect
of antibiotics on the tissue culture of sugarbeet and fodder beet. Tsitologiya-i-Genetika
27(2): 3-6) used a combination of claforan and carbenicillin as inhibitors of
Agrobacterium cells during transformation of diploid sugarbeet hybrid and 2 diploid varieties of fodder beet. However, the drawback of this report was that this combination had an inhibiting effect on shoot formation.
Yepes and Aldwinckle, 1994 (Yepes L. M.    and Aldwinckle H. S. 1994.
Micropropagation of thirteen Malus cultivars and rootstocks, and effect of antibiotics on
proliferation. Plant Growth Regulation 15(1): 55-67) used cefotaxime at 200 mg/litre and carbenicillin at 500 mg/litre for the transformation of 13 apple cultivars. However, the drawback of the report was that while cefatoxime caused abnormal shoot morphology, carbenicillin alone or in combination with cefotaxime at 200 mg/litre, inhibited proliferation and caused excessive enlargement of the basal leaves, inducing callus formation and release of phenolic compounds in the medium.Lin et al., 1995 (Lin-J J., Assad-Garcia N. and Kuo, J. 1995.
Plant hormone effect of antibiotics on the transformation efficiency of plant tissues by Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. Plant Science Limerick. 109(2): 171-177) reported the use
of 250 to 2000 µg/m1 carbenicillin for the inhibition of bacterial (A. tumefaciens strains. LBA4404, C58 and EHA101) growth in tobacco leaf explants wherein they showed that LBA4404 was the most sensitive to carbenicillin and cefotaxime. However, the drawback of the protocol was that the regeneration efficiency from leaf explants decreased with the addition of increasing concentration of carbenicillin on MS medium containing 0.5 µg/ml of
benzyladenine and/or 2,4-D wherein they emphasized on the toxic effects on leaf explants when grown on MS medium containing a combination of 250 µg/ml carbenicillin and 1µ/ml 2,4-D due to the auxin related chemical structures of 2,4-D) or NAA and carbenicillin. The major drawback of this protocol is that such plant growth regulators (2,4-D, BA or NAA) are generally used in most regeneration media that are employed for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation.
Sarma et al., 1995 (Sarma K.S., Evans N.E. and Selby C. 1995. Effect of carbenicillin and cefotaxime on somatic embryogenesis of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. Journal of Experimental Botany 46(292):, 1779-81) reported the use of antibiotics viz. carbenicillin and cefotaximethese in an attempt to transform Sitka spruce somatic embryos using Agrobacterium based vectors. They reported that carbenicillin should not be used for transformation of Sitka spruce. The drawback of the report was that carbenicillin prevented the development of mature somatic embryos, reduced early stage embryos by >90% and tissue growth by 50%. Cefotaxime had no effect on overall tissue growth, but reduced the development of early and mature embryos by 20% and 66-80%, respectively.
Shackelford and Chlan 1996 (Shackelford N.J. and Chlan C.A. 1996. Identification of antibiotics that are effective in eliminating Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 14(1): 50-5) performed an assay using 'ten antibiotics viz. cefotaxime, carbenicillin, erythromycin, spectinomycin, polymixin B, chloramphenicol, methicillin,
augmentin 500, augmentin 250 and moxalactam [latamoxef] inorder to identify the antibiotics that are most effective against A. tumefaciens strains EHAI01 and LBA4404, and to determine if these antibiotics inhibited tobacco callus and shoot formation. This report indicates that a major drawback of most transformation protocol is time consuming assays involving several costly antibiotics for the effective elimination of A. tumefaciens after gene transfer into plant explant has taken place.
 
Barrett et al., 1997 (Barrett C., Cobb E., McNicol R. and Lyon G. 1997 A risk assessment study of plant genetic transformation using Agrobacterium and implications for analysis of transgenic plants. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 47(2): 135-44) examined Agrobacterium transformation systems for Brassica, Solarium and Rubus, using
carbenicillin, cefotaxime and ticaracillin [ticarcillin], respectively, to eliminate contamination, for the presence of residual Agrobacterium. Results indicated that none of the antibiotics tested succeeded in eliminating Agrobacterium and the contamination levels increased in explants from 12 to 16 weeks to such an extent that Solanum cultures senesced and died. This may be due to the fact that in some cases the minimum to bactericidal concentration values (concentration to be used for elimination of contaminants in culture) for the three antibiotics were higher than the concentrations employed in the culture medium.
Moreover, even up to 6 months after transformation, 50% of contaminated material still
harboured bacterial cells with the binary vector at levels of 107 colony forming units per
gram. This report indicates a major drawback with most of the generally used antibiotics are ineffective for Agrobacterium elimination in plants like Brassica, Solanum and Rubus and affects their regeneration as well as survival efficiency.
Hammerschlag et al., 1997. (Hammerschlag F.A., Zimmerman R.H. Yadava, U.L.,
Hunsucker S. and Gercheva P. 1997. Effect of antibiotics and exposure to an acidified
medium on the elimination of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from apple leaf explants and on shoot regeneration. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 122(6): 758-63) tested a range of antibiotics and their short-term exposure to an acidified (pH 3.0) medium for their effects on eliminating A. tumefaciens, supervirulent strain EHA101 (pEHA101/pGT100), on leaf explants of Royal Gala apples (Malus domestica [M. pumila]) and on shoot regeneration.
They reported that the exposure of leaf explants to regeneration and elongation media containing 100 µg/ml of the antibiotics carbenicillin (crb), cefotaxime (cef), and cefoxitin (mefoxin (mef)), singly or in combination for 52 days, did not eliminate A. tumefaciens from the explants. The drawback of this report was that even short-term (1 to 18-hour) vacuum infiltration with 500 µg/ml of any of the antibiotics did not inhibit regeneration and Failed to completely eliminate A.tumefaciens from leaf explants.
Cheng et al., 1998 (Cheng, Z. M.. Schnurr, J. A, Kapaun, J. A. 1998.Timentin as an alternative antibiotic for suppression of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in genetic transformation. Plant Cell Reports 17(8): 64(5-9) studied the effects of timentin on shoot
regeneration of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) and its use for the suppression of Agrobacterium tumefaciens during genetic transformation. Timentin - a mixture of ticarcillin and clavulanic acid was used effectively at concentrations of 200-500 mg/1 and at ratios of ticarcillin:clavulanic acid at 50:1 and100:1. The drawback of this report is that although timentin is a less expensive alternative to the use of carbenicillin or cefotaxime antibiotics for the effective suppression of A. tumefaciens after genetic transformation yet it is expensive synthetic antibiotic as compared to natural agents like crude tea extracts.
Ling et al., 1998 (Ling H.Q., Kriseleit D. and Ganal M.W.    1998. Effect of
 to ticarcillin/potassium'  clavulanate on callus growth and shoot regeneration in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Plant Cell Reports 17(11): 843-7) studied the effect of Cefotaxime, ticarcillin/potassium clavulanate on tomato transformation. Cefotaxime did not inhibit callus growth in culture medium, but it clearly decreased shoot differentiation. While cefatoxime showed a strong negative effect on callus growth, shoot regeneration and transformation efficiency, the ticarcillin/potassium clavulanate was more economical and effective than carbenicillin and cefotaxime. The drawback of the report is that although ticarcillin/potassium clavulanate was a very good alternative to eliminate Agrobacterium tumefaciens in plant transformations yet it is an expensive synthetic antibiotic as compared to natural agents like crude tea extracts.
Joersbo et at. 2000 (Joersbo M., Brunstedt, 5. Marcussen, J. Okkels F.T.    2000.
Transformation of the endospermous legume guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) and
analysis of transgene transmission. Molecular-Breeding 5(6): 521-9) used carbenicillin
and cefotaxime, for the elimination of Agrobacterium after co-culture, wherein they found
considerable toxicity was displayed to guar tissues due to beta-lactams. When the beta-lactams were replaced by the non-phytotoxic beta-lactamase inhibitor "sulbactam" alongwith thidiazuron and silver thiosulfate the problem was overcome. The drawback of this report was that while the commonly used carbenicillin and cefotaxime were phytotoxic to the explants used, replacement of beta-lactams by sulbactam is a costly process.
Objects of the present invention
The main object of the present invention is to develop a use of tea leaf extract for killing the overgrowth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in systems or plants or explants requiring longer co-cultivation periods in order to increase the transformation efficiency.
 
Moreover, the crude tea extract is able to eliminate the risk of residual Agrobacterium released along with the transgenic plants thereby maintaining a balance between the selection pressures and the normal morphogenetic response.
Another object of the present invention is the use of tea leaf extract for Agrobacterium
tumefaciens genetic transformation in different systems or plants or explants wherein the
generally used bactericidal antibiotics are ineffective.
Further object of the present invention is to develop a use of tea leaf extract to enhance the transformation efficacy of the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Another object of the present invention is to develop a use of tea leaf extract to enhance
prevent polyphenol oxidation involved with such kind of transformation.
Yet another object of the present invention is to develop use of tea leaf extract to enhance wherein normal growth of the transformed plant is not affected by the this mode of transformation involving bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Yet another object of the present invention is to develop a cost-effective system for Agrobacterium tumefaciens genetic transformation wherein no commercial and yet costly antibiotics are used.
Still another object of the present invention is to develop an economical system for
obtaining the bactericidal agent without involving any costly extraction methods wherein
the crude leaf extract with bactericidal activity is extracted without requiring,expensive
 instruments.
Still another object of the invention is to develop a use of tea leaf extract wherein a crude leaf extract with bactericidal activity can be obtained in abundance from naturally growing tea bushes.
Still another object of the present invention is to develop a use of tea leaf extract wherein
the bactericidal agent is of natural origin and is not of synthetic or semi-synthetic nature.
Still another object of present invention is to develop a use of tea leaf extract wherein, the bactericidal agent can be obtained in abundance from actively growing two and a bud making it economical.
Still another object of the present invention is to develop a use of tea leaf extract wherein,
the bactericidal agent can be obtained in abundance from even the lower maintenance foliage thereby making it more economical as generally such leaves are discarded or burnt.
Still another object of the present invention is to develop a use of ten leaf extract wherein, the crude Leaf extract can also be used as a bactericidal agent for other contaminating
bacteria in different in vitro systems involving different plants or explants.

Still another object of the present invention is to develop a use of tea leaf extract wherein,
the crude extract can also be used during 'hairy root production' using Agrobacterium
rhizogenesis.
Still another object of the present invention is to develop use of tea leaf extract
wherein.the transformation efficiency can be increased considerably by decreasing the
mortality rate of transformants due to Agrobacterium overgrowth.
Further object of the present invention is to obtain tea leaf extract having bactericidal property for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformations which obviates the drawbacks as detailed above.
Summary of the present invention
The present invention relates to an efficient and cost effective use of tea leaf extract of preventing growth of genetic transformant bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens after transformation in plants by using tea leaf extract as a bactericide, wherein said use of tea leaf extract leads to elimination of common problem of polyphenol oxidation during
transformation and thereby helps maintain regeneration potential in explants and also
helps in increased transformation efficacy.
Detailed description of the present invention
Accordingly, the present invention relates to an efficient and cost effective use of
preventing growth of genetic transformant bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens after transformation in plants by using tea leaf extract as a bactericide, wherein said use leads to elimination of common problem of polyphenol oxidation during transformation and thereby helps maintain regeneration potential in explants and also helps in increased transformation efficacy.
In an embodiment of the present invention, use of tea leaf extract as a bactericide for
preventing growth of genetic transformant bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens after transformation in plants.
In another embodiment of the present invention, inoculating said bacteria harbouring antibiotic resistant genes and reporter gus gene in a culture medium with said antibiotics.
In yet another embodiment of the present invention, incubating the said culture in dark.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, harvesting the cells during log phase. In still another embodiment of the present invention, pelleting live bacterial cells.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, suspending the said pellet in fresh culture medium.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, optimizing the cells density.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, immersing various explants of different plants bacterial suspension.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, removing excess bacteria from explant.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, incubating explant in media for
different time durations.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, preparing crude extract of tea leaf to be used as bactericide by drying leaves.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, preparing acetone extract overnight.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, filtering the extract.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, extracting filterate with n-hexane to obtain aqueous and lipid layers.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, concentrating aqueous layer to dryness.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, diluting concentrated extract using
with water to obtain crude tea extract.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, estimating total catechins and caffeine in said extract.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, transferring explants of various plants
into medium containing various concentrations of 0-600 µg/ml of crude extract (figure 1)
and catechin and caffeine fractions separately.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, obtaining bacteria free transgenic explants.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein antibiotics are selected from a group comprising Kanamycin, and hygromycin.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein culture medium is yeast mannitol broth.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein concentration of bacteria is ranging between 10 to 75 micrograms/ml.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein incubating culture at
temperature ranging between 20 to 35° C.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein incubating culture at revolution rate ranging between 100 to 300 rpm for time duration ranging between 10 to 20 hours.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein harvesting the said culture at
optical density ranging between 0.6-0.8 at 600 nm for concentration of about 1 x 109cells/ml.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein pelleting the harvest by
centrifuging at 3000-9000 rpm for about 20 to 40 minutes.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein centrifuging said culture at temperature ranging between 20 to 35° C.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein cell density is measured spectrophotometrically.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein cell density is measured by
estimating optical density after about every 6 hours interval to estimate growth' rate of said bacteria spectrophotometrically.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein optimization of cell density has O.D. ranging between 0.6 to 0.8 at 600 nm at 1 X 109 cells/ml upto 60 hours.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein immersing said tea explant in
bacterial suspension for time duration ranging between 3 to 40 minutes.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein removing excess bacteria from explant by blotting of explant on filter paper.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein co-cultivating explant for
time duration ranging between 1 to 20 days.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein concentration of tea plant extract is ranging between I to 1000 micrograms/ml.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein leaves are dried in oven at temperature ranging between 50 to 70° C.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein acetone is at concentration
ranging between 5 to 50 %.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein acetone extract is prepared at room temperature.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein concentrating aqueous Layer
to drying using rotary evaporators.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein ratio of acetone and n-hexane is ranging between 4:5 to 12:1.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein concentration of tea leaf extract in acetone solution is in the ratio ranging between 200 to 500 gms/L.
 
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein concentration of catechins and caffeine is ranging between 2 to 750 micrograms/ml in culture.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein using tea extract as bactericide eliminates the problem of polyphenol oxidation.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein said plants show normal
growth after using tea extract as bactericide.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein said use of tea leaf extract shows increased transformation efficacy.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein.the transformation
efficiency can be increased considerably by decreasing the mortality rate of transformants
due to Agrobacterium overgrowth.
In further embodiment of the present invention, the use of tea leaf extract of
transformation used in the instant application employing bacteria Agrobacterium
tumefaciens causes no polyphenol oxidation. The polyphenol oxidation usually affects the
normal growth of the transformed plant in such kinds of transformation in plants. But, use of tea leaf extract as a bactericide after transformation of plant by said bacteria facilitate normal growth of the transformed plant.
In another embodiment of the present invention, transformation efficacy facilitated by the
said bacteria rises on the use of tea leaf extract as a bactericide for Agrobacterium
tumefaciens. The said extract decreases the mortality rate of transformant due to bacterial
overgrowth.
In further embodiment of the present invention, tea leaf extract as a potent bactericidal
agent for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformations which comprises
(i) inoculation of two strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens viz. EHAIOS (mild) and
GV2260 (virulent) harbouring the antibiotic resistance genes for kanamycin or hygromycin and the reporter gus gene from mother cultures of respective strains into 10-30 ml liquid modified Yeast Mannitol Broth with kanamycin or hygromycin (ii) incubation for 12-16 hr at 25-30°C and 150-200 rpm in dark (iii) harvesting at 0.6-0.8 optical density at 600 nm for 1X109cells/m1 during log phase of bacterial growth (iv) pelleting of living bacterial cells by centrifugation at 15-30 minutes at 4000-8000 rpm and 25-30°C (v) suspension of bacterial pellet in fresh 5-25ml of Yeast Mannito[ Broth without damaging the bacterial cells (vi) optimization of bacterial cell density at I X 109cells/ml by measuring optical density at 600 nm (vii) immersion of various explants of different plants in bacterial suspension for 5-35 minutes (viii) blotting of
explants on filter papers to remove excess Agrobacterium tumefaciens (ix) incubation of explants on incubation medium for different periods of 1-10 days (x) preparation of crude extract of tea leaf to be used as a bactericidal agent by drying 100-500g fresh tea leaves of Kangra jat in an oven at 60°C (xi) overnight extraction of dried leaves at room
temperature with 0.4-1.2 liters of 10-40% aqueous acetone and filteration (xii) extraction of the filtrate with 100-500 ml of n-hexane to obtain two layers for removal of lipids (xiii) the aqueous layer taken and concentrated to dryness using standard rotary evaporators (xiv) concentrated extract diluted with water to 10-50 ml and total catechins and caffeine estimated (xv) the aqueous extract served as a crude mixture (xvi) transfer of various
explants of different plants to regeneration medium containing different concentrations of 0-600µg/ml crude tea extract and catechin and caffeine fractions separately for totally killing the residual Agrobacterium tumefaciens and for eliminating the problem of polyphenol oxidation in the explants in order to maintain the regeneration potential of explants (xi) transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens free explants to regeneration medium
containing selection antibiotics for further regeneration and transgenic plant development (xii) optimization of the concentration and fractions of tea leaf extract on the growth curve of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in both solid and liquid Yeast Mannitol Broth media in order to determine the optimum concentration for desired bactericidal activity as well as for promoting regeneration potential of the explant.
In further embodiment of the present invention, different explants of different plant
species were used for transgenic production.
In yet another embodiment of the present invention, different concentrations of filter sterilized and autoclaved de-caffeinated fractions of catechin were added as above.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, different concentrations of D-
catechin of Acacia species were used as mentioned above wherein D-catechin was found
to promote and not inhibit the growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, since green tea extract is known to
have antimicrobial activity against several micro-organisms that are harmful to human
health at minimum inhibitory concentration or MIC at 250µg/m1 to 1000µg/ml, it was
presumed that crude leaf extract could be used to kill overgrowing Agrobacterium
tumefaciens during genetic transformation.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, this property of crude leaf extract
can be successfully employed to overcome the serious problems of Agrobacterium
tumefaciens overgrowth and also in preventing the loss of the transformants due to
ineffective bactericidal antibiotics such as carbenicillin, cefatoxime, tricaricillin that are generally used in genetic transformation experiments in order to kill overgrowing Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Use of crude tea leaf extract for genetic transformation in plants not only has the potential of providing abundantly available natural source of bactericidal agent but is also effective in cutting down the cost of commercially used antibiotics. Moreover, since the crude extracts are also obtained from the maintenance foliage leaves that are generally discarded and burnt, this use of tea leaf extract appears to be all the more economical and cost effective. Use of crude tea leaf extract is specially important in increasing the transformation efficiency because even the explants or plant species requiring long periods of co-cultivation can be recovered by killing the Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, different explants like leaf, somatic
embryo, callus and zygotic axes of tea were used using crude leaf extract of tea cultivars
assamica and chinary instead of generally used antibiotics for transgenic production following
the use of tea leaf extract outlined in Example.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, different explants of different plant species like carnation and rose leaf, somatic embryo, callus were used during genetic transformation using crude leaf extract following the use of tea leaf extracts outlined in Example 1.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, different concentrations of filter
sterilized and autoclaved de-caffeinated fractions of catechin were added as above for the production of transgenics instead of generally used antibiotics like carbenicillin, cefatoxime, tricaricillin etc. following the use of tea leaf extracts outlined in example 1.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, different concentrations of D-catechin of
Acacia species were used as mentioned above instead of generally used antibiotics like carbenicillin, cefatoxime, tricaricillin wherein D-catechin was found to promote and not inhibit the growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
In further embodiment of the present invention, applicant has claimed an extract as a
potent bactericidal agent for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformations
 30 comprising of steps (i) inoculation of two strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens viz. EHA 105 (mild) and GV2260 (virulent) harbouring the antibiotic resistance genes for kanamycin or hygromycin and the reporter gus gene from mother cultures of respective strains into 10-30 ml liquid modified Yeast Mannitol Broth with kanamycin or hygromycin (ii) incubation for 12-16 hr at 25-30ºC and 150-200 rpm in dark (iii) harvesting at 0.6-0.8 optical density at 600 nm for 1X109cells/ml during log phase of bacterial growth (iv) pelleting of living bacterial cells by centrifugation at 15-30 minutes at 4000-8000 rpm and 25-30°C (v) suspension of bacterial pellet in fresh 5-25ml of Yeast Mannitol Broth without damaging the bacterial cells (vi) optimization of bacterial cell density at 1X109cells/ml by measuring optical density at 600 nm (vii) immersion of
various explants of different plants in bacterial suspension for 5-35 minutes (viii) blotting of explants on filter papers to remove excess Agrobacterium tumefaciens (ix) incubation of explants on incubation medium for different periods of 1-10 days (x). preparation .of crude extract of tea leaf to be used as a bactericidal agent by drying 100-500,g fresh tea leaves of Kangra jat in an oven at 60°C (xi) overnight extraction of dried leaves at room
temperature with 0.4-1.2 liters of 10-40% aqueous acetone and filteration (xii) extraction of the filtrate with 100-500 ml of n-hexane to obtain two layers for removal of lipids (xiii) the aqueous layer taken and concentrated to dryness using standard rotary evaporators (xiv) concentrated extract diluted with water to 10-50 ml and total catechins and caffeine estimated (xv) the aqueous extract served as a crude mixture (xvi) transfer of various
 is explants of different plants to regeneration medium containing different concentrations of 0-600µg/ml crude tea extract and catechin and caffeine fractions separately for totally killing the residual Agrobacterium tumefaciens and for eliminating the problem of polyphenol oxidation in the explants in order to maintain the regeneration potential of explants (xvii) transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens free explants to regeneration medium containing selection antibiotics for further regeneration and transgenic plant development (xviii) optimization of the concentration and fractions of tea leaf extract on the growth curve of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in both solid and liquid Yeast Mannitol Broth media in order to determine the optimum concentration for desired bactericidal activity as well as for promoting regeneration potential of the explant.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein two strains of
Agrobacterium tumefaciens viz. EHA105 (mild) and GV2260 (virulent) harbouring the antibiotic resistance genes for kanamycin or hygromycin and the reporter gus gene from mother cultures of respective strains were inoculated into 10-30 ml liquid modified Yeast Mannitol Broth with kanamycin or hygromycin.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the above Agrobacterium
tumefaciens cultures were harvested at 0.6-0.8 optical density at 600 nm for 1X I09cells/ml during log phase of bacterial growth.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein bacterial pellet was suspended in fresh 5-25ml of Yeast Mannitol Broth without damaging: the bacterial cells.

In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein bacterial cell density was optimized at 1X109cells/m1 by measuring optical density at 600 nm.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein dried leaves overnight
extracted at room temperature with 0.4-1.2 liters of 10-40% aqueous acetone and filtered
and the filtrate extracted with 100-500 ml of n-hexane to obtain two layers for removal of
lipids.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein concentrated extract was diluted with water to 10-50 ml and total catechins and caffeine estimated.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the aqueous extract served
as a crude mixture.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein various explants of different plants were transferred to regeneration medium containing different concentrations of 0- 60Ougiml crude tea extract and catechin and caffeine fractions separately for totally killing the residual Agrobacteriurn tumefaciens and for eliminating the problem of polyphenol oxidation in the explants in order to maintain the regeneration potential of explants the cultures containing crude tea leaf extract were maintained at 25-30°C in dark at 150-200 rpm for 48 hr.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the crude leaf extract having
bactericidal properties can be obtained in abundance from even the rower maintenance
foliage thereby making it more economical as generally such leaves are discarded or
burnt.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the crude leaf extract can also be used as a bactericidal agent for other contaminating bacteria in different in vitro systems involving different plants or explants.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the crude leaf extract can be
used to increase the transformation efficiency considerably by decreasing the mortality rate of transformants due to Agrobacterium overgrowth.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWING
Fig.1 shows spectrophotometric decrease in absorbance with increasing concentration of
crude leaf extracts. The concentration of crude leaf extract is ranging between 1- 400µg/ml.
The following examples are given by way of illustration and therefore should not be construed to limit the scope of the present invention.
 
EXAMPLE-1
Two strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens viz. EHA105 (mild) and GV2260 (virulent)
harbouring the antibiotic resistance genes for kanamycin or hygromycin and the reporter
gus gene were inoculated from mother cultures of respective strains into 10-30 ml liquid
modified Yeast Mannitol Broth with kanamycin or hygromycin. The cultures were incubated for 12-16 hr at 25-30°C and 150-200 rpm in dark and harvested at 0.6-0.8 optical density at 600 nm for 1X109cells/ml during log phase of bacterial growth. The living bacterial cells were pelleted by centrifugation at 15-30 minutes at 4000-8000 rpm and 25-30°C and suspended in fresh 5-25ml of Yeast Mannitol Broth without damaging
 the bacterial cells. The bacterial cell density at 1X109cells/m1 was optimized by
measuring optical density at 600 nm.
Various explants of different plants were immersed in bacterial suspension for 5-35
minutes and blotted on filter papers to remove excess Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The
explants were incubated on incubation medium for different periods of 1-10 days. Crude
extract of tea leaf was prepared to be used as a bactericidal agent by drying 100-500g fresh tea leaves of Kangra jat in an oven at 60°C. Dried leaves were extracted overnight at room temperature with 0.4-1.2 liters of 10-40% aqueous acetone and filtered. The filtrate extracted with 100-500 ml of n-hexane to obtain two layers for removing lipids and the aqueous layer concentrated to dryness using standard rotary evaporators and diluted with
 water to 10-50 ml.
Total catechins and caffeine estimated and the aqueous extract served as a crude mixture. Various explants of different plants were transferred to regeneration medium containing different concentrations of 0-600µg/ml crude tea extract for totally killing the residual Agrobacterium tumefaciens and for eliminating the problem of polyphenol oxidation in
the explants in order to maintain the regeneration potential of explants.
The Agrobacterium tumefaciens free explants were transferred to regeneration medium containing kanamycin or hygromycin for further regeneration and transgenic plant development. Concentrations and fractions of tea leaf extract were tested on the growth curve of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in both solid and liquid Yeast Mannitol Broth media
 in order to determine the optimum concentration for desired bactericidal activity as well
as for promoting regeneration potential of the explant.
EXAMPLE-2
Two strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens viz. EHA 105 (mild) and GV2260 (virulent) harbouring the antibiotic resistance genes for kanamycin or hygromycin and the reporter
gus gene were inoculated from mother cultures of respective strains into 10-30 ml liquid
modified Yeast Mannitol Broth with kanamycin or hygromycin. The cultures were incubated for 12-16 hr at 25-30°C and 150-200 rpm in dark and harvested at 0.6-0.8 optical density at 600 nm for 1X109cellsiml during log phase of bacterial growth. The living bacterial cells were pelleted by centrifugation at 15-30 minutes at 4000-8000 rpm and 25-30°C and suspended in fresh 5-25m1 of Yeast Mannitol Broth without damaging the bacterial cells. Measurement of optical density at 600 nm at regular 6hr intervals for 0-48 hr and the mean of three readings were plotted for development of the growth curve. Crude mixture of catechins as well as caffeine at concentrations of 2-600µg/ml were added to fresh cultures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and maintained at 25-30°C in dark at 150-200 rpm for 48 hr. The optical density was again measured at regular interval of 6 hr each for 0-48hr for the plotting of the mean of the three readings in a linear graph in order to determine the effect of the crude mixture of catechins as well as caffeine at concentrations of 2-600p.g/m1 on fresh cultures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Fig.1).
EXAMPLE-3
Single colony of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was streaked on agar solidified plates
containing different concentrations 2-600µg/ml of crude tea leaf extract containing mixture of catechins and caffeine in order to determine its bactericidal effect on agar solidified media by incubating the plates at 25-30°C in dark for 12-16 hr.
 Advantages Of the present invention:
1. The main advantage of the present invention is that its an efficient and cost effective use of tea leaf extract of preventing growth of genetic transformant bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens after transformation in plants by using tea leaf extract as a bactericide.
2. Another advantage of the instant application is that it's a use of tea leaf extract for
enhanced genetic transformation in plant systems using bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the transformant.
3.    Yet another advantage of the present invention is that it's a use of tea leaf extract for prevention of overgrowth of genetic transformant of plants wherein the growth of the 30    plant after transformation is normal with no polyphenol oxidation.
4.    Still another advantage is a use of tea leaf extract wherein, crude tea leaf extract can be used as a potent bactericidal agent for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformations as it can be used for killing the overgrowth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in systems or plants or explants requiring longer co-cultivation periods thereby increasing the transformation efficiency.
5. Still another advantage is a use of tea leaf extract wherein, crude tea leaf extract can be used for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation in different systems or plants or explants wherein the generally used bactericidal antibiotics are ineffective.
6. Still another advantage is a use of tea leaf extract wherein, since no commercial
bactericidal antibiotics need to be used, crude tea leaf extract prove to be a cost effective system for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation.
7.  Still another advantage is a use of tea leaf extract wherein, since the crude leaf extract with bactericidal activity is obtained without involving any expensive instruments or
costly extraction use of tea leaf extracts, its use proves to be an economical use of tea
leaf extract.
8.    Still another advantage is a use of tea leaf extract wherein, the crude leaf extract with bactericidal activity can be easily obtained in abundance from naturally growing tea bushes round the year.
9. Still another advantage is a use of tea leaf extract wherein, the crude leaf extract as a
bactericidal agent is of natural origin and is not of synthetic or semi-synthetic nature.
10. Still another advantage is a use of tea leaf extract wherein, the crude leaf extract as a
bactericidal agent can be obtained in abundance from even the lower maintenance
foliage thereby making it more economical as generally such leaves are discarded or
burnt.
11.    Still another advantage is a use of tea leaf extract wherein, the crude leaf extract can also be used as a bactericidal agent for other contaminating bacteria in different in vitro systems involving different plants or explants.
12.    Still another advantage is a use of tea leaf extract wherein, the crude tea leaf extract     can also be used during 'hairy root production' using Agrobacterium rhizogenesis.
13.    Still another advantage is a use of tea leaf extract wherein, the crude leaf extract can be used to increase the transformation efficiency considerably by decreasing the mortality rate of transformants due to Agrobacterium overgrowth.
 

Claims
1. A use of tea leaf extract as a bactericide for preventing growth of genetic transformant bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens after transformation in plants, said use
comprising:
(a)    inoculating said bacteria harbouring antibiotic resistant genes and reporter gus gene in a culture medium with said antibiotics,
(b)    incubating the said culture in dark,
(c)    harvesting the cells during log phase,
(d)    pelleting live bacterial cells,
(e)    suspending the said pellet in fresh culture medium,
(f)    optimizing the cells density,
(g)    immersing various explants of different plants in bacterial suspension,
(h)    removing excess bacteria from explant,
( i)     incubating explant in media for different time durations,
( j)    preparing crude extract of tea leaf to be used as bactericide by drying leaves,
(k)    preparing acetone extract overnight,
( l)    filtering the extract,
(m)   extracting filterate with n-hexane to obtain aqueous and lipid layers,
(n)    concentrating aqueous layer to dryness,
(o)    diluting concentrated extract using with water to obtain crude tea extract,
(p)    estimating total catechins and caffeine in said extract,
(q)    transferring explants of various plants into medium containing various concentrations of 0-  600 µg/ml of crude extract and catechin and caffeine fractions
     separately,
(r)    obtaining bacteria free transgenic explants.
2. A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein using tea extract as bactericide eliminates the problem of polyphenol oxidation.
3. A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein said plants show normal growth after using tea
extract as bactericide.
4. A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein said use of tea leaf extract shows increased transformation efficacy.
5. A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein antibiotics are selected from a group comprising
   Kanamycin, and hygromycin.
6. A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein culture medium is yeast mannitol broth.
7. A use as claimed in claims, wherein concentration of bacteria is ranging between 10 to 75 micrograms/ml.
8.  A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein incubating culture at temperature ranging
between 20 to 35° C.
9.  A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein incubating culture at revolution rate ranging between 100 to 300 rpm for time duration ranging between 10 to 20 hours.
10.  A use as claimed in claim I, wherein harvesting the said culture at optical density ranging between 0.6-0.8 at 600 nm for concentration of about 1 x 109 cells/ml.
11. A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein pelleting the harvest by centrifuging at 3000-9000
rpm for about 20 to 40 minutes.
12.    A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein centrifuging said culture at temperature ranging between 20 to 35° C.
13.    A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein cell density is measured spectrophotometrically.
 14. A use as claimed in claim 1,wherein cell density is measured by estimating optical density after about every 6 hours interval to estimate growth rate of said bacteria spectrophotometrically.
15. A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein optimization of cell density has O.D. ranging between 0.6 to 0.8 at 600 nm at 1 X 109 cells/ml upto 60 hours.
16. A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein immersing said tea explant in bacterial
suspension for time duration ranging between 3 to 40 minutes.
17.    A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein removing excess bacteria from explant by blotting of explant on filter paper.
18.    A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein co-cultivating explant for time duration ranging
between 1 to 20 days.
19.    A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein concentration of tea plant extract is ranging between I to 1000 micrograms/ml.
20.    A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein leaves are dried in oven at temperature ranging between 50 to 70° C.
21. A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein acetone is at concentration ranging between 5 to
50 %.
22.    A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein acetone extract is prepared at room temperature.
23.    A use as claimed in claim 1,wherein concentrating aqueous layer to drying using rotary evaporators.
24.    A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein ratio of acetone and n-hexane is ranging between 4:5 to 12:1.
25.    A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein concentration of tea leaf extract in acetone solution is in the ratio ranging between 200 to 500 gms/L.
26. A use as claimed in claim 1, wherein concentration of catechins and caffeine is ranging
between 2 to 750 micrograms/ml in culture.
 
ABSTRACT
The present invention relates to an efficient and cost effective use of preventing growth
of genetic transformant bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens after transformation in
plants by using tea leaf extract as a bactericide, wherein said use leads to elimination of common problem of polyphenol oxidation during transformation and thereby helps maintain regeneration potential in explants and also helps in increased transformation efficacy.

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