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(11) Patent Number: 364
(45) Date of grant: 16/12/2009
(12) PATENT
(51) Int.CI.8: A 01N 37/46, 43/40, 51/00
(21)Application    KE/P/2007/00609    (84) WO No. WO 2006/069655
Number:    06/07/2006
(22)Filing Date:    17/12/2005
(31) Priority Number: 102004062512.3    (32) Date: 24/12/2004 (33) Country: DE
(73)    Owner(s): BAYER CROPSCIENCE AG of Alfred-Nobel-Str. 50, 40789 Monheim, Germany
(72) Inyentor(s)    HUNGENBERG, Heike; KROHN, Peter-Wilhelm and
BECKER, Rolf, Christian
(74)    Agent/address for correspondence: Kaplan & Stratton Advocates, P.O. Box 40111-00100, Nairobi
(54) Title:    SYNERGISTIC MIXTURES EXHIBITING INSECTICIDAL AND FUNGICIDAL
ACTION
(57) Abstract: The invention relates to novel active substance combinations containing an active substance selected from neonicotinoid groups and at least one type of active substance selected from a group of amino acid benalaxyl M and methalaxyl M derivatives. The use of said novel active substance combinations in the form of pesticides and seed dressing agents, methods for controlling pests and protecting seeds and seeds treated by means of the inventive active substance combinations are also disclosed.
 
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Synergistic mixtures exhibiting insecticidal and fungicidal action
The present invention relates to novel active compound combinations comprising, as active
compounds, firstly an active compound from the group of the neonicotinoids and, secondly, at
least one active compound selected from the group of the amino acid derivatives benalaxyl M and
5    metalaxyl M, which combinations have surprisingly good insecticidal and fungicidal properties.
It is already known that the isomer benalaxyl M (methyl N-(phenylacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-D-alaninate) of the formula
 
can be used as fungicide for controlling fungal diseases of the plant. The isomer mixture of this
10 compound is known as benalaxyl. Benalaxyl is described, for example, in DE 29 036 12 Al or in
"The Pesticide Manual", 13th edition (2003), published by the British Crop Protection Council.
It is also known that the isomer metalaxyl M (methyl N-(phenylacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-D-alaninate) of the formula
00CH3
0
m    OCH3
CH3 —
H3C    CH3
 
15    can be used as fungicide for controlling fungal diseases of the plant. The isomer mixture of this
compound is known as metalaxyl. Metalaxyl M is described, for example, in "The Pesticide Manual", 13th edition (2003), published by the British Crop Protection Council or else in WO 96/01559 Al, which also discusses the activity of the R enantiomer of metalaxyl and benalaxyl.
20 Both benalaxyl. M and metalaxyl M act as inhibitors of protein biosynthesis by interfering with the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
 
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Furthermore, it is known that neonicotinoids such as, for example, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, nitenpyram and dinotefuran are suitable for controlling animal pests, in particular insects.
The activity of these compounds is good; however, at low application rates or against individual 5    pests, it does sometimes not meet the high demands made on insecticides.
Active compound combinations comprising neonicotinoids and the isomer mixture metalaxyl have already been described (EP 0 772 397 A1, WO 99/63826 A2). The activity of these mixtures is likewise good. However, in this case, too, the combination does sometimes, at low application rates or against individual pests, not meet the high expectations.
10 It has now been found that mixtures comprising at least one compound from the group of the neonicotinoids mentioned below and at least one of the pure isomers of the amino acid derivatives benalaxyl M and metalaxyl M are synergistically effective and particularly suitable for controlling animal pests. By using these mixtures according to the invention, it is possible to apply considerably lower amounts of active compounds, i.e. the activity of the mixture is greater than the
15 activity of the individual components. Surprisingly, it was also found that the combination according to the invention of a neonicotinoid with the pure isomer metalaxyl M exceeds the activity of the prior-art combinations of a neonicotinoid with the isomer mixture metalaxyl. Moreover, it was found that the combinations according to the invention are particularly suitable for treating seed for protection against pests and fungal attack.
20 The neonicotinoids mentioned above are known, for example from "The Pesticide Manual", 13th edition (2003), published by the British Crop Protection Council.
Clothianidin has the formula
I I
N N.NO,
and is known from EP A2 0 376 279. 25 Thiacloprid has the formula
 
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CI         CN

and is known from EP A2 0 235 725. Dinotefuran has the formula
     H
CH— N NHCH
2    3
NO2

5 and is known from EP Al 0 649 845.
Acetamiprid has the formula
CI
and is known from WO Al 91/04965.
Nitenpyram has the formula
 
10    CI    N    C2H5
and is known from EP A2 0 302 389. Imidacloprid has the formula
     CHr-NNzN r"--\
—H
NO2
 
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and is known from EP Al 0 192 060. Thiamethoxam has the formula
(o
NI    CH,
N
and is known from EP A2 0 580 553.
5 The ratio of the active compounds employed and the total amount of the mixture to be applied depend on the nature and the occurrence of the insects and fungi. For each application, the optimum ratios and total amounts used can in each case be determined by test series.
A particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active compound
benalaxyl M and clothianidin. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is
10        between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between
25:1 and 1:5, where in the ratios here and below benalaxyl M is in each case mentioned first.
A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active compound
metalaxyl M and clothianidin. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is
between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between
15    25:1 and 1:5, where in the ratios here and below metalaxyl M is in each case mentioned first.
A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active compound benalaxyl M and imidacloprid. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
20 A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active compound metalaxyl M and imidacloprid. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active
25 compounds benalaxyl M and acetamiprid. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
 
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A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active compounds metalaxyl M and acetamiprid. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
5    A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active
compounds benalaxyl M and nitenpyram. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active
10 compounds metalaxyl M and nitenpyram. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active
compounds benalaxyl M and dinotefuran. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active
15 compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active
compounds metalaxyl M and dinotefuran. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active
compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly
20 preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active compounds benalaxyl M and thiamethoxarn. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
25    A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active
compounds metalaxyl M and thiamethoxam. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active
30 compounds benalaxyl M and thiacloprid. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
 
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A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active compounds metalaxyl M and thiacloprid. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the two active compounds is between 1000:1 and 1:100, preferably between 125:1 and 1:50 and particularly preferably between 25:1 and 1:5.
5    A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active
compounds benalaxyl M, metalaxyl M and clothianidin. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the active compounds is between 1000:1000:1.
A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active compounds benalaxyl M, metalaxyl M and imidacloprid. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the 10 active compounds is between 1000:1000:1.
A further particularly preferred mixture according to the invention comprises the active compounds benalaxyl M, metalaxyl M and thiacloprid. In the mixture, the weight ratio of the active compounds is between 1000:1000:1.
Preferred mixtures in the sense of the present invention also include combinations of two of the
15 neonicotinoids mentioned above and one of the active compounds benalaxyl M or metalaxyl M. Preferred combinations of neonicotinoids, which may also be used according to the invention, are described in DE 103 474 40. The combinations of, firstly, clothianidin and imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiacloprid or imidacloprid and thiacloprid and secondly, benalaxyl M and also the combinations of firstly clothianidin and imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiacloprid or
20 imidacloprid and thiacloprid and, secondly, metalaxyl M may be mentioned as being preferred.
The active compound combinations, having good plant compatibility and favorable homeotherm toxicity, are suitable for controlling animal pests, in particular insects, arachnids and nematodes, encountered in agriculture, in forests, in the protection of stored products and materials and in the hygiene sector. They can preferably be used as crop protection compositions for foliar and soil
25    treatment.
The mixtures according to the invention are also highly effective against phytopathogenic fungi. By way of example, but not by way of limitation, some pathogens of fungal diseases may be mentioned:
Xanthomonas species, such as, for example, Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae; Pseudomonas
30 species, such as, for example, Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans; Erwinia species, such as, for
example, Erwinia amylovora; Pythium species, such as, for example, Pythium ultimum; Phytophthora
species, such as, for example, Phytophthora infestans; Pseudoperonospora species, such as, for
 
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example, Pseudoperonospora humuli or Pseudoperonospora cubensis; Plasmopara species, such as, for example, Plasmopara viticola; Bremia species, such as, for example, Bremia lactucae; Peronospora species, such as, for example, Peronospora pisi or P. brassicae; Erysiphe species, such as, for example, Erysiphe graminis; Sphaerotheca species, such as, for example, Sphaerotheca
5 fuliginea; Podosphaera species, such as, for example, Podosphaera leucotricha; Venturia species, such as, for example, Venturia inaequalis; Pyrenophora species, such as, for example, Pyrenophora tares or P. graminea (conidia form: Drechslera, syn: Helminthosporium); Cochliobolus species, such as, for example, Cochliobolus sativus (conidia form: Drechslera, syn: Helminthosporium); Uromyces species, such as, for example, Uromyces appendiculatus; Puccinia species, such as, for example,
10 Puccinia recondita; Sclerotinia species, such as, for example, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum; Tilletia species, such as, for example, Tilletia caries; Ustilago species, such as, for example, Ustilago nuda or Ustilago avenae; Pellicularia species, such as, for example, Pellicularia sasakii; Pyricularia species, such as, for example, Pyricularia oryzae; Fusarium species, such as, for example, Fusarium culmorum; Botrytis species, such as, for example, Botrytis cinerea; Septoria species, such as, for
15 example, Septoria nodorum; Leptosphaeria species, such as, for example, Leptosphaeria nodorum; Cercospora species, such as, for example, Cercospora canescens; Altemaria species, such as, for example. Altemaria brassicae; Pseudocercosporella species, such as, for example, Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides.
At certain application rates, the active compound combinations according to the invention may also 20    have a strengthening effect in plants. Accordingly, they are also suitable for mobilizing the defense
system of the plant against attack by unwanted microorganisms.
Plant-strengthening (resistance-inducing) substances are to be understood as meaning, in the present
context, those substances or combinations of substances which are capable of stimulating the defense
system of plants in such a way that, when subsequently inoculated with unwanted microorganisms,
25 the treated plants display a substantial degree of resistance to these microorganisms. In the present case, unwanted microorganisms are to be understood as meaning phytopathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses. Thus, the substances according to the invention can be employed for protecting plants against attack by the abovementioned pathogens within a certain period of time after the treatment. The period of time within which protection is effected generally extends from 1 to 10 days, preferably 1 to
30 7 days, after the treatment of the plants with the active compounds.
As already mentioned above, the active compound combinations according to the invention are effective against normally sensitive and resistant species and against all or individual stages of development of animal pests. The abovementioned pests include:
From the order of the Isopoda, for example, Oniscus asellus, Armadillidium vulgare, Porcellio
 
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scaber. From the order of the Diplopoda, for example, Blaniulus guttulatus. From the order of the Chilopoda, for example, Geophilus carpophagus, Scutigera spp. From the order of the Symphyla, for example, Scutigerella immaculata. From the order of the Thysanura, for example, Lepisma saccharina. From the order of the Collembola, for example, Onychiurus armatus. From the order of
5 the Orthoptera, for example, Acheta domesticus, Gryllotalpa spp., Locusta migratoria migratorioides, Melanoplus spp., Schistocerca gregaria. From the order of the Blattaria, for example, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, Leucophaea maderae, Blattella germanica. From the order of the Dermaptera, for example, Forficula auricularia. From the order of the Isoptera, for example, Reticuliterrnes spp. From the order of the Phthiraptera, for example, Pediculus humanus
10 corporis, Haematopinus spp., Linognathus spp., Trichodectes spp., Damalinia spp. From the order of the Thysanoptera, for example, Hexcinothrips femoralis, Thrips tabaci, Thrips palmi, Frankliniella occidentalis. From the order of the Heteroptera, for example, Eurygaster spp., Dysdercus intermedius, Piesma quadrata, Cimex lectularius, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma spp. From the order of the Homoptera, for example, Aleurodes brassicae, Bemisia tabaci, Tnaleurodes
15 vaporariorum, Aphis gossypii, Brevicoryne brassicae, Cryptomyzus ribis, Aphis fabae, Aphis pomi, Eriosoma lanigerum, Hyalopterus arundinis, Phylloxera vastatrix, Pemphigus spp., Macro¬siphum avenae, Myzus spp., Phorodon humuli, Rhopalosiphum padi, Empoasca spp., Euscelis bilobatus, Nephotettix cincticeps, Lecanium cond., Saissetia oleae, Laodelphax striatellus, Nilaparvata lugens, Aonidiella aurantii, Aspidiotus hederae, Pseudococcus spp., Psylla spp. From
20 the order of the Lepidoptera, for example, Pectinophora gossypiella, Bupalus piniarius, Cheimatobia brumata, Lithocolletis blancardella, Hyponomeuta padella, Plutella xylostella, Malacosoma neustria, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, Lymantria spp., Bucculatrix thurberiella, Phylloc¬nistis citrella, Agrotis spp., Euxoa spp., Feltia spp., Earias insulana, Heliothis app., Mamestra brassicae, Panolis flammea, Spodoptera spp., Trichoplusia ni, Carpocapsa pomonella, Pieris spp.,
25 Chilo spp., Pyrausta nubilalis, Ephestia kuehniella, Galleria mellonella, Tineola bisselliella, Tinea pellionella, Hofmannophila pseudospretella, Cacoecia podana, Capua reticulana, Choristoneura fumiferana, Clysia ambiguella, Homona magnanima, Tortrix viridana, Cnaphalocerus spp., Oulema oryzae. From the order of the Coleoptera, for example, Anobium punctatum, Rhizopertha dominica, Bruchidius obtectus, Acanthoscelides obtectus, Hylotrupes bajulus, Agelastica alni,
30 Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Phaedon cochleariae, Diabrotica spp., Psylliodes chrysocephala, Epilachna varivestis, Atomaria spp., Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Anthonomus spp., Sitophilus spp., Otiorrhynchus sulcatus, Cosmopolites sordidus, Ceuthorrhynchus assimilis, Hypera postica, Dermestes spp., Trogoderma spp., Anthrenus spp., Attagenus spp., Lyctus spp., Meligethes aeneus, ?anus spp., Niptus hololeucus, Gibbium psylloides, Tribolium spp., Tenebrio molitor, Agriotes
35        spp., Conoderus spp., Melolontha melolontha, Amphimallon solstitialis, Costelytra zealandica,
Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus. From the order of the Hymenoptera, for example, Diprion spp., Hop-
 
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locampa spp., Lasius spp., Monomorium pharaonis, Vespa spp. From the order of the Diptera, for example, Aedes spp., Anopheles spp., Culex spp., Drosophila melanogaster, Musca spp., Fannia spp., Calliphora erythrocephala, Lucilia spp., Chrysomyia spp., Cuterebra spp., Gastrophilus spp., Hyppobosca spp., Stomoxys spp., Oestrus spp., Hypoderma spp., Tabanus spp., Tannia spp., Bibio
5 hortulanus, Oscinella frit, Phorbia spp., Pegomyia hyoscyami, Ceratitis capitata, Dacus oleae, Tipula paludosa, Hylemyia spp., Liriomyza spp.. From the order of the Siphonaptera, for example, Xenopsylla cheopis, Ceratophyllus spp.. From the class of arachnids, for example, Scorpio maurus, Latrodectus mactans, Acarus siro, Argas spp., Ornithodoros spp., Dermanyssus gallinae, Eriophyes ribis, Phyllocoptruta oleivora, Boophilus spp., Rhipicephalus spp., Amblyomma spp., Hyalomma
10  spp., Ixodes spp., Psoroptes spp., Chorioptes spp., Sarcoptes spp., Tarsonemus spp., Bryobia praetiosa, Panonychus spp., Tetranychus spp., Hemitarsonemus spp., Brevipalpus spp.
The plant-parasitic nematodes include, for example, Pratylenchus spp., Radopholus similis,
Ditylenchus dipsaci, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, Heterodera spp., Globodera spp., Meloidogyne
spp., Aphelenchoides spp., Longidorus spp., Xiphinema spp., Trichodorus spp., Bursaphelenchus
15    spp.
All plants and plant parts can be treated in accordance with the invention. Plants are understood as meaning, in the present context, all plants and plant populations, such as desired and undesired wild plants or crop plants (including naturally occurring crop plants). Crop plants may be plants which can be obtained by conventional breeding and optimization methods or by biotechnological
20 and genetic engineering methods or by combinations of these methods, including the transgenic plants and including the plant varieties capable or not capable of being protected by plant breeders' rights. Plant parts are understood as meaning all above-ground and subterranean parts and organs of the plants, such as shoot, leaf, flower and root, examples which may be mentioned being leaves, needles, stalks, stems, flowers, fruiting bodies, fruits and seeds, and also roots, tubers and
25 rhizomes. The plant parts also include harvested material and vegetative and generative propagation material, for example cuttings, tubers, rhizomes, slips and seeds.
What may be emphasized in this context is the particularly advantageous effect of the
compositions according to the invention with regard to their use in cereal plants such as, for
example, wheat, oats, barley, spelt, triticale and rye, but also in corn, sorghum and millet, rice,
30 sugar cane, soybeans, sunflowers, potatoes, cotton, oilseed rape, canola, tobacco, sugar beet, fodder beet, asparagus, hops and fruit plants (comprising pome fruit such as, for example, apples and pears, stone fruit such as, for example, peaches, nectarines, cherries, plums and apricots, citrus fruits such as, for example, oranges, grapefruits, limes, lemons, kumquats, tangerines and satsumas, nuts such as, for example, pistachios, almonds, walnuts and pecan nuts, tropical fruits
 
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such as, for example, mango, paw-paw, pineapple, dates and bananas, and grapes) and vegetables (comprising leaf vegetables such as, for example, endives, corn salad, Florence fennel, lettuce, cos lettuce, Swiss chard, spinach and chicory for salad use, cabbages such as, for example, cauliflower, broccoli, Chinese leaves, Brassica oleracea (L.) convar. acephala var. sabellica L. (curly kale,
5 feathered cabbage), kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, white cabbage and savoy cabbage, fruit vegetables such as, for example, aubergines, cucumbers, capsicums, table pumpkins, tomatoes, courgettes and sweetcorn, root vegetables such as, for example, celeriac, wild turnips, carrots, including yellow cultivars, Raphanus sativus var. niger and var. radicula, beetroot, scorzonera and celery, legumes such as, for example, peas and beans, and vegetables from the
10 Allium family such as, for example, leeks and onions).
The treatment according to the invention of the plants and plant parts with the active compound combinations is carried out either directly or by treating their environment, habitat or storage space by the customary treatment methods, for example by dipping, spraying, vaporizing, misting, broadcasting, painting on and, in the case of propagation material, in particular seeds, furthermore
15    by coating with one or more layers.
The mixtures according to the invention, in particular also the combination of one of the active compounds clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or thiacloprid and benalaxyl M or metalaxyl M, are particularly suitable for the treatment of seeds. Thus, a large part of the damage to crop plants which is caused by pests occurs as early as when the seed is infested during storage and
20 after the seed is introduced into the soil, and during and immediately after germination of the plants. This phase is particularly critical since the roots and shoots of the growing plant are particularly sensitive and even minor damage can lead to the death of the whole plant. Protecting the seed and the germinating plant by the use of suitable compositions is therefore of particularly great interest.
25 The control of pests by treating the seed of plants has been known for a long time and is the
subject of continuous improvements. However, the treatment of seed entails a series of problems
which cannot always be solved in a satisfactory manner. Thus, it is desirable to develop methods
for protecting the seed and the germinating plant which dispense with the additional application of
crop protection compositions after planting or after emergence of the plants. It is furthermore
30 desirable to optimize the amount of active compound employed in such a way as to provide
optimum protection for the seed and the germinating plant from attack by pests, but without
damaging the plant itself by the active compound employed. In particular, methods for the
treatment of seed should also take into consideration the intrinsic insecticidal properties of
transgenic plants in order to achieve optimum protection of the seed and the germinating plant with
 
a minimum of crop protection compositions being employed.
The present .invention therefore in particular also relates to a method for the protection of seed and
germinating plants from attack by pests, by treating the seed with a composition according to the
invention. The invention likewise relates to the use of the compositions according to the invention
5 for the treatment of seed for protecting the seed and the resulting plant from pests. Furthermore, the invention relates to seed which has been treated with a composition according to the invention so as to afford protection from pests.
One of the advantages of the present invention is that the particular systemic properties of the
compositions according to the invention mean that treatment of the seed with these compositions
10 not only protects the seed itself, but also the resulting plants after emergence, from pests. In this manner, the immediate treatment of the crop at the time of sowing or shortly thereafter can be dispensed with.
A further advantage is the synergistically increased insecticidal activity of the compositions
according to the invention in comparison with the individual insecticidally active compound,
15 which exceeds the expected activity of the two active compounds when applied individually. Also advantageous is the synergistically increased fungicidal activity of the compositions according to the invention in comparison with the individual fungicidally active compound, which exceeds the expected activity of the active compound when applied individually. This makes possible an optimization of the amount of active compound employed.
20 Furthermore, it must be considered as advantageous that the mixtures according to the invention can also be employed in particular in transgenic seed, the plants arising from this seed being capable of expressing a protein directed against pests. By treating such seed with the compositions according to the invention, certain pests can be controlled merely by the expression of the, for example, insecticidal protein, and, surprisingly, the result in addition is a synergistically
25 complemented activity with the compositions according to the invention, which, again, increases the efficacy of the protection against attack by pests.
The compositions according to the invention are suitable for protecting seed of any plant variety as
already mentioned above which is employed in agriculture, in the greenhouse, in forests, in
horticulture or in viticulture. In particular, this takes the form of seed of corn, peanut, canola,
30 oilseed rape, poppy, soybeans, cotton, beet (for example sugar beet and fodder beet), rice, sorghum
and millet, wheat, barley, oats, rye, sunflower or tobacco. The compositions according to the
invention are likewise suitable for treating the seed of fruit plants and vegetables as already
mentioned above. The treatment of the seed of corn, soybeans, cotton, wheat and canola or oilseed
 
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rape is of particular importance. Thus, for example, the mixture according to the invention comprising the active compounds benalaxyl M and clothianidin and the mixture according to the invention comprising the active compounds metalaxyl M and clothianidin are particularly suitable for treating the seed of corn, oilseed rape, soybeans and cotton.
5 As already mentioned above, the treatment of transgenic seed with a composition according to the invention is also of particular importance. This takes the form of seed of plants which, as a rule, comprise at least one heterologous gene which governs the expression of a polypeptide with in particular insecticidal properties. In this context, the heterologous genes in transgenic seed may be derived from microorganisms such as Bacillus, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Trichoderma,
10 Clavibacter, Glomus or Gliocladium. The present invention is particularly suitable for the treatment of transgenic seed which comprises at least one heterologous gene originating from Bacillus sp. and whose gene product shows activity against the European corn borer and/or the corn root worm. It is particularly preferably a heterologous gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis.
15    Within the scope of the present invention, the composition according to the invention is applied to
the seed either alone or in a suitable formulation. Preferably, the seed is treated in a state in which it is stable enough to avoid damage during treatment. In general, the seed may be treated at any point in time between harvest and sowing. The seed usually used has been separated from the plant and freed from cobs, shells, stalks, coats, hairs or the flesh of the fruits.
20 When treating the seed, care must generally be taken that the amount of the composition according to the invention applied to the seed and/or the amount of further additives is chosen in such a way that the germination of the seed is not adversely affected, or that the resulting plant is not damaged. This must be borne in mind in particular in the case of active compounds which can have phytotoxic effects at certain application rates.
25 The compositions according to the invention can be applied directly, that is to say without further components and without having been diluted. As a rule, it is preferable to apply the compositions to the seed in the form of a suitable formulation. Suitable formulations and methods for the treatment of seed are known to the skilled worker and are described, for example, in the following documents: US 4,272,417 A, US 4,245,432 A, US 4,808,430 A, US 5,876,739 A,
30 US 2003/0176428 Al, WO 2002/080675 Al, WO 2002/028186 A2.
The active compound combinations according to the invention can be converted into the customary
formulations, such as solutions, emulsions, wettable powders, suspensions, powders, dusts, pastes,
soluble powders, granules, suspoemulsion concentrates, natural and synthetic materials
 
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impregnated with active compounds and microencapsulations in polymeric materials.
These formulations are produced in a known manner, for example by mixing the active compounds with extenders, that is, liquid solvents and/or solid carriers, optionally with the use of surfactants, that is, emulsifiers and/or dispersants and/or foam formers.
5    If the extender used is water, it is also possible to use, for example, organic solvents as auxiliary
solvents. Suitable liquid solvents are essentially: aromatics, such as xylene, toluene or alkylnaphthalenes, chlorinated aromatics or chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as chlorobenzenes, chloroethylenes or methylene chloride, aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane or paraffins, for example mineral oil fractions, mineral and vegetable oils, alcohols,
10 such as butanol or glycol and ethers and esters thereof, ketones, such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone or cyclohexanone, strongly polar solvents, such as dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide, and water.
Suitable solid carriers are:
for example ammonium salts and ground natural minerals, such as kaolins, clays, talc, chalk,
15 quartz, attapulgite, montmorillonite or diatomaceous earth, and ground synthetic minerals, such as finely divided silica, alumina and silicates; suitable solid carriers for granules are: for example crushed and fractionated natural rocks such as calcite, marble, pumice, sepiolite and dolomite, and synthetic granules of inorganic and organic meals, and granules of organic material such as sawdust, coconut shells, corn cobs and tobacco stalks; suitable emulsifiers and/or foam formers
20 are: for example nonionic and anionic emulsifiers, such as polyoxyethylene fatty acid esters, polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers, for example alkylaryl polyglycol ethers, alkylsulfonates, alkyl sulfates, arylsulfonates and protein hydrolysates; suitable dispersants are: for example lignosulfite waste liquors and methylcellulose.
Tackifiers such as carboxymethylcellulose and natural and synthetic polymers in the form of
25 powders, granules or latices, such as gum arabic, polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl acetate, and natural phospholipids, such as cephalins and lecithins, and synthetic phospholipids can be used in the formulations. Other possible additives are mineral and vegetable oils.
It is possible to use colorants such as inorganic pigments, for example iron oxide, titanium oxide
and Prussian Blue, and organic dyestuffs, such as alizarin dyestuffs, azo dyestuffs and metal
30 phthalocyanine dyestuffs, and trace nutrients such as salts of iron, manganese, boron, copper, cobalt, molybdenum and zinc.
The formulations in general comprise between 0.1 and 95% by weight of active compound,
 
- 14 -
preferably between 05 and 90%.
Preferably, the active compound combinations according to the invention comprise no further active compounds apart from methiocarb and the neonicotinoids mentioned.
If appropriate, the active compound combinations according to the invention, in commercially
5 available formulations and in the use forms prepared from these formulations, can be present in a mixture with other active compounds such as insecticides, attractants, sterilants, bactericides, acaricides, nematic ides, fungicides, growth regulators or herbicides. The insecticides include, for example, phosphoric esters, carbamates, carboxylic esters, chlorinated hydrocarbons, phenylureas, substances produced by microorganisms, and the like.
10 Examples of especially advantageous components in the mixtures are the following: Fungicides:
aldimorph, ampropylfos, ampropylfos-potassium, andoprim, anilazin, azaconazole, azoxystrobin,
benalaxyl, benodanil, benomyl, benzamacril, benzamacryl-isobutyl, bialaphos, binapacryl, biphenyl,
bitertanol, blasticidin-S, bromuconazole, bupirimate, buthiobate, calcium polysulfide, capsimycin,
15 captafol, captan, carbendazim, carboxin, carvone, quinomethionate, chlobenthiazon, chlorfenazole,
chloroneb, chloropicrin, chlorothalonil, chlozolinate, clozylacon, cufraneb, cymoxanil,
cyproconazole, cyprodinil, cyprofuram, debacarb, dichlorophen, diclobutrazol, diclofluanid,
diclomezin, dicloran, diethofencarb, difenoconazole, dimethirimol, dimethomorph, diniconazole,
diniconazole-M, dinocap, diphenylamine, dipyrithione, ditalimfos, dithianon, dodemorph, dodine,
20 drazoxolon, ediphenphos, epoxiconazole, etaconazole, ethirimol, etridiazole, famoxadon, fenapanil,
fenarimol, fenbuconazole, fenfuram, fenitropan, fenpiclonil, fenpropidin, fenpropimorph, fentin
acetate, fentin hydroxide, ferbam, ferimzon, fluazinam, flumetover, fluoromid, fluquinconazole,
flurprimidol, flusilazole, flusulfamide, flutolanil, flutriafol, folpet, fosetyl-aluminum, fosetyl-sodium,
fthalide, fuberidazole, furalaxyl, furametpyr, furcarbonil, furconazole, furconazole-cis, furmecyclox,
25 guazatine, hexachlorobenzene, hexaconazole, hymexazole, imazalil, imibenconazole, iminoctadine,
iminoctadine-albesilate, iminoctadine-triacetate, iodocarb, ipconazole, iprobenfos (IBP), iprodione,
irumamycin, isoprothiolane, isovaledione, kasugamycin, kresoxim-methyl, copper preparations such
as: copper hydroxide, copper naphthenate, copper oxychloride, copper sulfate, copper oxide, oxine-
copper and Bordeaux mixture, mancopper, mancozeb, maneb, meferimzone, mepanipyrim, mepronil,
30 metalaxyl, metconazole, methasulfocarb, methfuroxam, metiram, metomeclam, metsulfovax,
mildiomycin, myclobutanil, myclozolin, nickel dimethyldithiocarbamate, nitrothal-isopropyl,
nuarimol, ofurace, oxadixyl, oxamocarb, oxolinic acid, oxycarboxim, oxyfenthiin, paclobutrazole,
pefurazoate, penconazole, pencycuron, phosdiphen, pimaricin, piperalin, polyoxine, polyoxorim,
 
-15-
probenazole, prochloraz, procymidon, propamocarb, propanosine-sodium, propiconazole, propineb, pyrazophos, pyrifenox, pyrimethanil, pyroquilon, pyroxyfur, quinconazole, quintozene (PCNB), sulfur and sulfur preparations, tebuconazole, tecloftalam, tecnazene, tetcyclacis, tetraconazole, thiabendazole, thicyofen, thifluzamide, thiophanate-methyl, thiram, tioxymid, tolclofos-methyl,
5  tolylfluanid, triadimefon, triadimenol, triazbutil, triazoxide, trichlamide, tricyclazole, tridemorph, triflumizole, triforine, triticonazole, uniconazole, validamycin A, vinclozolin, viniconazole, zarilamid, zineb, ziram
and Dagger G, OK-8705, OK-8801, a-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-13-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole¬1-ethanol, a-(2,4-dichloropheny1)-P-fluoro-P-propy1-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol, a-(2,4-dichloro¬10    phenyl)-13-methoxy-a-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol,    cc-(5-methy1-1,3-dioxan-5-y1)-13-[[4-(tri-
fluoromethypphenyl]methylene] -1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol,    (5RS,6RS)-6-hydroxy-2,2,7,7-tetra-
methy1-5-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1 -y1)-3-octanone,    (E)-a-(methoxyimino)-N-methyl-2-phenoxyphenyl-
acetamide, 1- isopropyl { 2-methy 1-1- [ [ [1-(4-methylphenypethy 1] am int)] carbony 1]propy lIcarbamate 1-(2,4-dichloropheny1)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yDethanone O-(phenylmethyl)oxime, 1-(2-methyl-1¬15    naphthalenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione,    1-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-3-(2-propenyl)-2,5-pyrrolidinedione,
1-[(diiodornethyl)sulfonyl]-4-methylbenzene, [2-(2,4-dichloropheny1)-1,3-dioxolan-2-y 1]methyl] - 1H-imidazole, 14[2-(4-chloropheny1)-3-phenyloxiranyl] methyl] -1H-1,2,4-triazole, 141424(2,4- dichlorophenypmethoxy]phenyl]ethenyl]-1H-imidazole, 1-methy1-5-nony1-2-(phenylmethyl)- 3-pyrrolidinol, 2',6'-dibromo-2-methy1-4'-trifluoromethoxy-44rifluoromethyl-1,3-thiazole-5-carbox-
20 anilide, 2,2-dichloro-N-{1-(4-chloropheny Dethyl]-1-ethy1-3-methylcyclopropanecarboxamide, 2,6-dichloro-5-(methylthio)-4-pyrimidinyl thiocyanate, 2,6-dichloro-N-(4-trifluoromethylbenzy1)- benzamide, 2,6-dichloro-N-R4-(trifluoromethyl)phenylimethyl]benzamide, 2-(2,3,3-triiodo¬2-propenyl)-2H-tetrazole, 2-[(1-methylethypsulfony1]-5-(trichloromethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole, 2-[[6- deoxy-4-0-(4-0-methy1-(3-D-glycopyranosyl)-a-D-glucopyranosyl] amino1-4-methoxy-1H-pyrrolo-
25    [2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile,    2-aminobutane,    2-bromo-2-(bromomethyl)pentanedinitrile,
2-chloro-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,1,3-trimethy1-1H-inden-4-y1)-3-pyridinecarboxamide, 2-chloro-N-(2,6- dimethylpheny1)-N-(isothiocyanatomethypacetamide, 2-phenylphenol (OPP), 3,4-dichloro-114- (difluoromethoxy)pheny1]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione, 3,5-dichloro-N1cyano[(1-methy1-2-propynyl)oxy]- methylibenzamide, 3-(1,1-dimethylpropy1-1-oxo)-1H-indene-2-carbonitrile, 342-(4-chloropheny1)-5-
30 ethoxy-3-isoxazolidinyl]pyridine, 4-chloro-2-cyano-N,N-dimethy1-5-(4-methylpheny1)-1H-imidazole¬1-sulfonamide, 4-methyltetrazolo[1,5-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-one, 8-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-N-ethyl-N¬propy1-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane-2-methanamine, 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate, N-2-[(phenyl¬amino)carbonyl]-9H-xanthene-9-carbohydrazide, bis(1-methylethyl)-3-methyl-4-[(3-methylbenzoy1)- oxy]-2,5-thiophene dicarboxylate, cis-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)cycloheptanol, cis-
35    44344-(1,1-dimethylpropyl)pheny1-2-methy 1propyl] -2,6-dimethylmorphol ine hydrochloride, ethyl
 
- 16-
[(4-chlorophenyDazo]cyanoacetate, potassium hydrogencarbonate, sodium methanetetrathiolate, methyl 1-(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethy1-1H-inden-l-y1)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate, methyl N-(2,6- dimethylpheny1)-N-(5-isoxazolylcarbony1)-DL-alaninate, methyl N-(chloroacetyl)-N-(2,6-dimethyl¬phenyl)-DL-alaninate, N-(2,3-dichloro-4-hydroxypheny1)-1-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide, N-(2,6-
5 dimethy 1pheny1)-2-methoxy-N-(tetrahydro-2-oxo-3-furanypacetamide,    N-(2,6-dimethylphenyI)-2-
methoxy-N-(tetrahydro-2-oxo-3-thienyl)acetamide,    N-(2-chloro-4-nitropheny1)-4-methy1-
3-nitrobenzenesulfonamide, N-(4-cyclohexylpheny1)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-pyrimidineamine, N-(4-
hexylpheny1)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-pyrimidineamine, N-(5-chloro-2-methylpheny1)-2-methoxy-N-(2-
oxo-3-oxazolidinyl)acetamide, N-((6-methoxy)-3-pyridinyl)cyclopropanecarboxamide, N-[2,2,2-tri-
10 chloral-[(chloroacetyl)amino]ethyllbenzamide, N43-chloro-4,5-bis(2-propynyloxy)pheny11-N'- methoxymethaneimidamide, sodium N-formyl-N-hydroxy-DL-alaninate, 0,0-diethyl [2-(dipropyl¬amino)-2-oxoethyl]ethylphosphoramidothioate, 0-methyl S-phenyl phenylpropylphosphoramido¬thioate, S-methyl 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate, spiro[21-1]-1-benzopyran-2,1'(3'H)-iso¬benzofuran]-3'-one.
15 Bactericides:
bronopol, dichlorophen, nitrapyrin, nickel dimethyldithiocarbamate, kasugamycin, octhilinone, furancarboxylic acid, oxytetracyclin, probenazole, streptomycin, tecloftalam, copper sulfate and other copper preparations.
Insecticides / acaricides / nematicides:
20 abamectin, ABG-9008, acephate, acequinocyl, acetamiprid, acetoprole, acrinathrin, AKD-1022,
AKD-3059, AKD-3088, alanycarb, aldicarb, aldoxycarb, allethrin, alpha-cypermethrin
(alphamethrin), amidoflumet, aminocarb, amitraz, avermectin, AZ-60541, azadirachtin,
azamethiphos, azinphos-methyl, azinphos-ethyl, azocyclotin, Bacillus popilliae, Bacillus
sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus thuringiensis strain EG-2348,
25 Bacillus thuringiensis strain GC-91, Bacillus thuringiensis strain NCTC-11821, baculoviruses,
Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria tenella, benclothiaz, bendiocarb, benfuracarb, bensultap,
benzoximate, beta-cyfluthrin, beta-cypermethrin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, binapacryl, bioallethrin,
bioallethrin-S-cyclopentyl isomer, bioethanomethrin, biopermethrin, bioresmethrin, bistrifluron,
BPMC, brofenprox, bromophos-ethyl, bromopropylate, bromfenvinfos (-methyl), BTG-504, BTG-
30 505, bufencarb, buprofezin, butathiofos, butocarboxim, butoxycarboxim, butylpyridaben,
cadusafos, camphechlor, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbophenothion, carbosulfan, cartap, CGA-50439,
chinomethionat, chlordane, chlordimeform, chloethocarb, chlorethoxyfos, chlorfenapyr,
chlorfenvinphos, chlorfluazuron, chlormephos, chlorobenzilate, chloropicrin, chlorproxyfen,
chlorpyrifos-methyl, chiorpyrifos (-ethyl), chlovaporthrin, chromafenozide, cis-cypermethrin, cis-
 
- 17-
resmethrin, cis-permethrin, clocythrin, cloethocarb, clofentezine, clothianidin, clothiazoben, codlemone, coumaphos, cyanofenphos, cyanophos, cycloprene, cycloprothrin, cyfluthrin, cyflumetofen, cyhalothrin, cyhexatin, cypermethrin, cyphenothrin (1R-trans-isomer), cyromazine, DDT, deltamethrin, demeton-S-methyl, demeton-S-methylsulfone, diafenthiuron, dialifos,
5 diazinon, dichlofenthion, dichiorvos, dicofol, dicrotophos, dicyclanil, diflubenzuron, dimefluthrin, dimethoate, dimethylvinphos, dinobuton, dinocap, dinotefuran, diofenolan, disulfoton, docusat¬sodium, dofenapyn, DOWCO-439, eflusilanate, emamectin, emamectin-benzoate, empenthrin (1R-isomer), endosulfan, Entomopthora spp., EPN, esfenvalerate, ethiofencarb, ethion, ethiprole, ethoprophos, etofenprox, etoxazole, etrimfos, famphur, fenamiphos, fenazaquin, fenbutatin oxide,
10 fenfluthrin, fenitrothion, fenobucarb, fenothiocarb, fenoxacrim, fenoxycarb, fenpropathrin, fenpyrad, fenpyrithrin, fenpyroximate, fensulfothion, fenthion, fentrifanil, fenvalerate, fipronil, flonicamid, fluacrypyrim, fluazuron, flubendiamide, flubenzimine, flubrocythrinate, flucycloxuron, flucythrinate, flufenerim, flufenoxuron, flufenprox, flumethrin, flupyrazofos, flutenzin (flufenzine), fluvalinate, fonofos, formetanate, formothion, fosmethilan, fosthiazate, fubfenprox
15 (fluproxyfen), furathiocarb, gamma-cyhalothrin, gamma-HCH, gossyplure, grandlure, granulosis viruses, halfenprox, halofenozide, HCH, HCN-801, heptenophos, hexaflumuron, hexythiazox, hydramethylnone, hydroprene, IKA-2002, imidacloprid, imiprothrin, indoxacarb, iodofenphos, iprobenfos, isazofos, isofenphos, isoprocarb, isoxathion, ivermectin, japonilure, kadethrin, nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, kinoprene, lambda-cyhalothrin, lindane, lufenuron, malathion, mecarbam,
20 mesulfenfos, metaldehyde, metam-sodium, methacrifos, methamidophos, Metharhizium anisopliae, Metharhizium flavoviride, methidathion, methiocarb, methomyl, methoprene, methoxychlor, methoxyfenozide, metofluthrin, metolcarb, metoxadiazone, mevinphos, milbemectin, milbemycin, MKI-245, MON-45700, monocrotophos, moxidectin, MTI-800, naled, NC-104, NC-170, NC-184, NC-194, NC-196, niclosamide, nicotine, nitenpyram, nithiazine, NNI-0001, NNI-0101, NNI-0250,
25 NNI-9768, novaluron, noviflumuron, OK-5101, OK-5201, OK-9601, OK-9602, OK-9701, OK-9802, omethoate, oxamyl, oxydemeton-methyl, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, parathion-methyl, parathion (-ethyl), permethrin (cis-, trans-), petroleum, PH-6045, phenothrin (1R-trans isomer), phenthoate, phorate, phosalone, phosmet, phosphamidon, phosphocarb, phoxim, piperonyl butoxide, pirimicarb, pirimiphos-methyl, pirimiphos-ethyl, potassium oleate, prallethrin,
30 profenofos, profluthrin, promecarb, propaphos, propargite, propetamphos, propoxur, prothiofos, prothoate, protrifenbute, pymetrozine, pyraclofos, pyrafluprole, pyresmethrin, pyrethrum, pyridaben, pyridalyl, pyridaphenthion, pyridathion, pyrimidifen, pyriprole, pyriproxyfen, quinalphos, resmethrin, RH-5849, ribavirin, RU-12457, RU-15525, S-421, S-1833, salithion, sebufos, SI-0009, silafluofen, spinosad, spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, sulfluramid, sulfotep,
35        sulprofos, SZI-121, tau-fluvalinate, tebufenozide, tebufenpyrad, tebupirimfos, teflubenzuron,
tefluthrin, temephos, temivinphos, terbam, terbufos, tetrachlorvinnhos, tetradifon. tetramethrin.
 
-18-
tetramethrin (1R-isomer), tetrasul, theta-cypermethrin, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiapronil, thiatriphos, thiocyclam hydrogenoxalate, thiodicarb, thiofanox, thiometon, thiosultap-sodium, thuringiensin. tolfenpyrad, tralocythrin, tralomethrin, transfluthrin, triarathene, triazamate, triazophos, triazuron, trichlophenidine, trichlorfon, triflumuron, trimethacarb, vamidothion,
5 vaniliprole, verbutin, Verticillium lecanii, WL-108477, WL-40027, YI-5201, YI-5301, YI-5302, XMC, xylylcarb, ZA-3274, zeta-cypermethrin, zolaprofos, ZXI-8901, the compound 3- methylphenyl propylcarbamate (Tsumacide Z), the compound 3-(5-chloro-3-pyridiny1)-8-(2,2,2- trifluoroethyl)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3-carbonitrile (CAS-Reg. No. 185982-80-3) and the corresponding 3-endo-isomer (CAS-Reg. No. 185984-60-5) (cf. WO-96/37494, WO-98/25923),
10        and also preparations which comprise insecticidally active plant extracts, nematodes, fungi or
viruses.
A mixture with other known active compounds, such as herbicides, or with fertilizers and growth regulators is also possible.
When used as insecticides, the active compound combinations according to the invention can
15 furthermore be present in their commercially available formulations and in the use forms, prepared from these formulations, as a mixture with synergistic agents. Synergistic agents are compounds which increase the action of the active compounds, without it being necessary for the synergistic agent added to be active itself.
The active compound content of the use forms prepared from the commercially available
20 formulations can vary within wide limits. The active compound concentration of the use forms can be from 0.0000001 to 95% by weight of active compound, preferably between 0.0001 and 1% by weight.
The compounds are employed in a customary manner appropriate for the use forms.
When used against hygiene pests and pests of stored products, the active compound combination 25 has an excellent residual action on wood and clay as well as a good stability to alkali on limed substrates.
Industrial materials in the present context are understood as meaning non-live materials such as, preferably, plastics, adhesives, sizes, paper and board, leather, wood, timber products and paints.
The material which is to be protected from insect attack is very especially preferably wood and 30 timber products.
Wood and timber products which can be protected by the composition according to the invention,
 
- 19 -
or mixtures comprising it, are to be understood as meaning, for example:
Construction timber, wooden beams, railway sleepers, bridge components, jetties, vehicles made
of wood, boxes, pallets, containers, telephone poles, wood lagging, windows and doors made of
wood, plywood, chipboard, joinery, or timber products which quite generally are used in house
5    construction or building joinery.
The active compound combinations can be used as such, in the form of concentrates or generally customary formulations such as powders, granules, solutions, suspensions, emulsions or pastes.
The abovementioned formulations can be prepared in a manner known per se, for example by
mixing the active compounds with at least one solvent or diluent, emulsifier, dispersant and/or
10        binder or fixative, water repellant, if desired desiccants and UV stabilizers, and if desired colorants
and pigments and other processing auxiliaries.
The insecticidal compositions or concentrates used for protecting wood and timber products comprise the active compound according to the invention in a concentration of from 0.0001 to 95% by weight, in particular 0.001 to 60% by weight.
15 The amount of the compositions or concentrates employed depends on the species and the abundance of the insects and on the medium. The optimal quantity to be employed can be determined in each case by test series upon application. In general, however, it will suffice to employ from 0.0001 to 20% by weight, preferably 0.001 to 10% by weight, of the active compound, based on the material to be protected.
20 A suitable solvent and/or diluent is an organochemical solvent or solvent mixture and/or an oily or oil-type organochemical solvent or solvent mixture of low volatility and/or a polar organochemical solvent or solvent mixture and/or water and, if appropriate, an emulsifier and/or wetter.
Organochemical solvents which are preferably employed are oily or oil-type solvents with an
evaporation number of above 35 and a flash point of above 30°C, preferably above 45°C. Such oily
25 and oil-type solvents which are insoluble in water and of low volatility and which are used are suitable mineral oils or their aromatic fractions or mineral-oil-containing solvent mixtures, preferably white spirit, petroleum and/or alkylbenzene.
Mineral oils which are advantageously used are those with a boiling range of from 170 to 220°C,
white spirit with a boiling range of from 170 to 220°C, spindle oil with a boiling range of from 250
30 to 350°C, petroleum and aromatics with a boiling range of from 160 to 280°C, oil of turpentine, and the like.
 
-20-
In a preferred embodiment, liquid aliphatic hydrocarbons with a boiling range of from 180 to 210°C or high-boiling mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons with a boiling range of from 180 to 220°C and/or spindle oil and/or monochloronaphthalene, preferably a-monochloro-naphthalene, are used.
5 The organic oily or oil-type solvents of low volatility and with an evaporation number of above 35 and a flash point of above 30°C, preferably above 45°C, can be replaced in part by organochemical solvents of high or medium volatility, with the proviso that the solvent mixture likewise has an evaporation number of above 35 and a flash point of above 30°C, preferably above 45°C, and that the insecticide/fungicide mixture is soluble or emulsifiable in this solvent mixture.
10 In a preferred embodiment, some of the organochemical solvent or solvent mixture is replaced by an aliphatic polar organochemical solvent or solvent mixture. Aliphatic organochemical solvents which contain hydroxyl and/or ester and/or ether groups are preferably used, such as, for example, glycol ethers, esters or the like.
Organochemical binders used for the purposes of the present invention are the synthetic resins
15 and/or binding drying oils which are known per se and which can be diluted in water and/or dissolved or dispersed or emulsified in the organochemical solvents employed, in particular binders composed of, or comprising, an acrylate resin, a vinyl resin, for example polyvinyl acetate, polyester resin, polycondensation or polyaddition resin, polyurethane resin, alkyd resin or modified alkyd resin, phenol resin, hydrocarbon resin such as indene/coumarone resin, silicone
20 resin, drying vegetable and/or drying oils and/or physically drying binders based on a natural and/or synthetic resin.
The synthetic resin employed as binder can be employed in the form of an emulsion, dispersion or
solution. Bitumen or bituminous substances may also be used as binders, in amounts of up to 10%
by weight. In addition, colorants, pigments, water repellants, odor-masking agents, and inhibitors
25    or anticorrosive agents and the like, all of which are known per se, can be employed.
In accordance with the invention, the composition or the concentrate preferably comprises, as organochemical binders, at least one alkyd resin or modified alkyd resin and/or a drying vegetable oil. Alkyd resins which are preferably used in accordance with the invention are those with an oil content of over 45% by weight, preferably 50 to 68% by weight.
30 Some or all of the abovementioned binder can be replaced by a fixative (mixture) or plasticizer (mixture). These additives are intended to prevent volatilization of the active compounds, and also crystallization or precipitation. They preferably replace from 0.01 to 30% of the binder (based on
 
- 21 -
100% of binder employed).
The plasticizers are from the chemical classes of the phthalic esters, such as dibutyl phthalate,
dioctyl phthalate or benzyl butyl phthalate, phosphoric esters such as tributyl phosphate, adipic
esters such as di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, stearates such as butyl stearate or amyl stearate, oleates
5        such as butyl oleate, glycerol ethers or higher-molecular-weight glycol ethers, glycerol esters and
p-toluenesulfonic esters.
Fixatives are based chemically on polyvinyl alkyl ethers such as, for example, polyvinyl methyl ether, or ketones such as benzophenone and ethylenebenzophenone.
Other suitable solvents or diluents are, in particular, also water, if appropriate as a mixture with 10 one or more of the abovementioned organochemical solvents or diluents, emulsifiers and dispersants.
Particularly effective timber protection is achieved by industrial-scale impregnating processes, for example the vacuum, double-vacuum or pressure processes.
If appropriate, the ready-to-use compositions may additionally also contain further insecticides and 15    also, if appropriate, one or more fungicides.
The active compound combinations according to the invention can at the same time be employed for protecting objects which come into contact with seawater or brackish water, in particular hulls, screens, nets, buildings, moorings and signaling systems, from fouling.
Fouling by sessile Oligochaeta, such as Serpulidae, and by shells and species from the
20 Ledamorpha group (goose barnacles), such as various Lepas and Scalpellum species, or by species from the Balanomorpha group (acorn barnacles), such as Balanus or Pollicipes species, increases the frictional drag of ships and, as a consequence, leads to a marked increase in operation costs owing to higher energy consumption and additionally frequent residences in the dry dock.
Apart from fouling by algae, for example Ectocarpus sp. and Ceramium sp., fouling by sessile 25 Entomostraka groups, which come under the generic term Cirripedia (cirriped crustaceans), is of particular importance.
Surprisingly, it has now been found that the active compound combinations according to the invention have an outstanding antifouling action.
Use of active compound combinations according to the invention allows the use of heavy metals 30    such as, for example, in bis(trialkyltin) sulfides, tri-n-butyltin laurate, tri-n-butyltin chloride,
 
- 22 -
copper(I) oxide, triethyltin chloride, tri-n-butyl(2-phenyl-4-chlorophenoxy)tin, tributyltin oxide, molybdenum disulfide, antimony oxide, polymeric butyl titanate, phenyl(bispyridine)bismuth chloride, tri-n-butyltin fluoride, manganese ethylenebisthiocarbamate, zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate, zinc ethylenebisthiocarbamate, zinc salts and copper salts of
5 2-pyridinethiol 1-oxide, bisdimethyldithiocarbamoylzinc ethylenebisthiocarbamate, zinc oxide, copper(I) ethylenebisdithiocarbamate, copper thiocyanate, copper naphthenate and tributyltin halides to be dispensed with, or the concentration of these compounds to be substantially reduced.
If appropriate, the ready-to-use antifouling paints can additionally comprise other active compounds, preferably algicides, fungicides, herbicides, molluscicides, or other antifouling active 10 compounds.
Preferable suitable components in combinations with the antifouling compositions according to the invention are:
algicides such as 2-tert-butylamino-4-cyclopropylamino-6-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine, dichlorophen, diuron, endothal, fentin acetate, isoproturon, methabenzthiazuron, oxyfluorfen, quinoclamine and 15    terbutryn;
fungicides such as benzo[b]thiophenecarboxylic acid cyclohexylamide S,S-dioxide, dichlofluanid, fluorfolpet, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate, tolylfluanid and azoles such as azaconazole, cyproconazole, epoxyconazole, hexaconazole, metconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole;
molluscicides such as Fe complexing agents, fentin acetate, metaldehyde, methiocarb, niclosamid, 20 thiodicarb and trimethacarb;
or conventional antifouling active compounds such as 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, diiodomethylparatryl sulfone, 2-(N,N-dimethylthiocarbamoylthio)-5-nitrothiazyl, potassium salts, copper salts, sodium salts and zinc salts of 2-pyridinethiol 1-oxide, pyridine-triphenylborane, tetrabutyldistannoxane, 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)pyridine, 2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-
25    isophthalonitrile, tetramethylthiuram disulfide and 2,4,6-trichlorophenylmaleimide.
The antifouling compositions used comprise the active compound in a concentration of 0.001 to 50% by weight, in particular 0.01 to 20% by weight.
Moreover, the antifouling compositions comprise the customary components such as, for example, those described in Ungerer, Chem. Ind. 1985, 37, 730-732 and Williams, Antifouling Marine 30 Coatings, Noyes, Park Ridge, 1973.
Besides the algicidal, fungicidal, molluscicidal and insecticidal active compounds, antifouling
 
BCS 04-3070-Foreign Countries
- 23 -
paints comprise, in particular, binders.
Examples of recognized binders are polyvinyl chloride in a solvent system, chlorinated rubber in a
solvent system, acrylic resins in a solvent system, in particular in an aqueous system, vinyl
chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer systems in the form of aqueous dispersions or in the form of
5 organic solvent systems, butadiene/styrene/acrylonitrile rubbers, drying oils such as linseed oil, resin esters or modified hardened resins in combination with tar or bitumens, asphalt and epoxy compounds, small amounts of chlorine rubber, chlorinated polypropylene and vinyl resins.
If appropriate, paints also comprise inorganic pigments, organic pigments or colorants which are
preferably insoluble in seawater. Paints may furthermore comprise materials such as colophonium
10 to allow controlled release of the active compounds. Furthermore, the paints may comprise plasticizers, modifiers which affect the rheological properties and other conventional constituents. The active compound combinations according to the invention may also be incorporated into self-polishing antifouling systems.
The active compound combinations according to the invention are also suitable for controlling
15 animal pests, in particular insects, arachnids and mites, which are found in enclosed spaces such as, for example, dwellings, factory halls, offices, vehicle cabins and the like. They can be employed in domestic insecticide products for controlling these pests either alone or in combination with other active compounds and auxiliaries. They are active against sensitive and resistant species and against all developmental stages. These pests include:
20 From the order of the Scorpionidea, for example, Buthus occitanus. From the order of the Acarina, for example, Argas persicus, Argas reflexus, Bryobia ssp., Dermanyssus gallinae, Glyciphagus domesticus, Ornithodorus moubat, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Trombicula alfreddugesi, Neutrombicula autumnalis, Dermatophagoides pteronissimus, Dermatophagoides forinae. From the order of the Araneae, for example, Aviculariidae, Araneidae. From the order of the Opiliones, for
25 example, Pseudoscorpiones chelifer, Pseudoscorpiones cheiridium, Opiliones phalangium. From the order of the Isopoda, for example, Oniscus asellus, Porcellio scaber. From the order of the Diplopoda, for example, Blaniulus guttulatus, Polydesmus spp. From the order of the Chilopoda, for example, Geophilus spp. From the order of the Zygentoma, for example, Ctenolepisma spp., Lepisma saccharina, Lepismodes inquilinus. From the order of the Blattaria, for example, Blatta
30 orientalies, Blattella germanica, Blattella asahinai, Leucophaea maderae, Panchlora spp., Parcoblatta spp., Periplaneta australasiae, Periplaneta americana, Periplaneta brunnea, Periplaneta fuliginosa, Supella longipalpa. From the order of the Saltatoria, for example, Acheta domesticus. From the order of the Dermaptera, for example, Forficula auricularia. From the order of the Isoptera, for example, Kalotermes spp., Reticulitermes spp. From the order of the Psocoptera, for
 
- 24 -
example, Lepinatus spp., Liposcelis spp. From the order of the Coleptera, for example, Anthrenus spp., Attagenus spp., Dermestes spp., Latheticus oryzae, Necrobia spp., Ptinus spp., Rhizopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, Stegobium paniceum. From the order of the Diptera, for example, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes taeniorhynchus,
5 Anopheles spp., Calliphora erythrocephala, Chrysozona pluvialis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pipiens, Culex tarsalis, Drosophila spp., Fannia canicularis, Musca domestica, Phlebotomus spp., Sarcophaga carnaria, Simulium spp., Stomoxys calcitrans, Tipula paludosa. From the order of the Lepidoptera, for example, Achroia grisella, Galleria mellonella, Plodia interpunctella, Tinea cloacella, Tinea pellionella, Tineola bisselliella. From the order of the Siphonaptera, for example,
10 Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans, Xenopsylla cheopis. From the order of the Hymenoptera, for example, Camponotus herculeanus, Lasius fuliginosus, Lasius niger, Lasius umbratus, Monomorium pharaonis, Paravespula spp., Tetramorium caespitum. From the order of the Anoplura, for example, Pediculus humanus capitis, Pediculus humanus corporis, Phthirus pubis. From the order of the Heteroptera, for example, Cimex hemipterus,
[5    Cimex lectularius, Rhodinus prolixus, Triatoma infestans.
Application in the field of the household insecticides can also be effected in combination with other suitable active compounds such as phosphoric esters, carbamates, pyrethroids, growth regulators or active compounds from other known classes of insecticides.
They are used in aerosols, pressure-free spray products, for example pump and atomizer sprays,
20 automatic fogging systems, foggers, foams, gels, evaporator products with evaporator tablets made of cellulose or polymer, liquid evaporators, gel and membrane evaporators, propeller-driven evaporators, energy-free, or passive, evaporation systems, moth papers, moth bags and moth gels, as granules or dusts, in baits for spreading or in bait stations.
When applying the active compound combinations according to the invention, the application rates
25 can be varied within a substantial range, depending on the type of application. In the treatment of plant parts, the application rates of active compound combination are generally between 0.1 and 10 000 g/ha, preferably between 10 and 1000 g/ha.
The good insecticidal action of the active compound combinations according to the invention can
be seen from the examples which follow. While the individual active compounds exhibit
30 weaknesses with regard to the action, the combinations demonstrate an action which exceeds a simple summation of action.
Formula for the calculation of the kill rate of a combination of two active compounds
 
- 25 -
The expected activity for a given combination of two active compounds can be calculated (cf. COLBY, S.R.; "Calculating Synergistic and Antagonistic Responses of Herbicide Combinations", Weeds 15, pages 20-22, 1967):
if
5 X=
Y=
E_
10
then    the kill rate, expressed in % of the untreated control, when employing active compound A at an application rate of m ppm,
the kill rate, expressed in % of the untreated control, when employing active compound B at an application rate of n ppm,
the kill rate, expressed in % of the untreated control, when employing active compounds A and B at application rates of m and n ppm,
E=X+Y XxY

100
If the actual insecticidal kill rate is higher than the calculated one, the kill rates of the combination
are superadditive, i.e. a synergistic effect is present. In this case, the kill rate that is actually
observed has to be higher than the value, calculated using the formula above, for the expected kill
15    rate (E).
 
- 26
Example A
Myzus persicae test
Solvent:    7    parts by weight of dimethylformamide
Emulsifier:    2    parts by weight of alkylaryl polyglycol ether
5 To produce a suitable preparation of active compound, 1 part by weight of active compound is mixed with the stated amounts of solvent and emulsifier, and the concentrate is diluted with emulsifier-containing water to the desired concentration.
Cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea) which are heavily infested by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) are treated by being dipped into the preparation of active compound of the desired 10    concentration.
After the desired period of time, the kill in % is determined. 100% means that all aphids have been killed; 0% means that none of the aphids have been killed. The determined kill rates are entered into Colby's formula.
In this test, for example, the following active compound combination according to the present 15 application shows a synergistically enhanced activity compared to the active compounds applied individually or the active compound combination of the prior art (table A):
 
- 27 -
Table Al
Plant-damaging insects
Myzus persicae test
5 Active compound    Concentration    Kill
in ppm    in % after 1 day
clothianidin
0.8    45
10
metalaxyl M
500    0
metalaxyl
15        500    0
    clothianidin + metalaxyl M (1: 625)   

 
0.8+ 500
clothianidin + metalaxyl (1 : 625)
0.8+ 500
 
found* calc.**
80    45
found* calc.**
60    45
 
25    * found = activity found
** calc. = activity calculated using Colby's formula
 
-28-
Table A2
Plant-damaging insects
Myzus persicae test
5 Active compound    Concentration    Kill
in ppm    in % after 6 days
clothianidin
0.8    35
10
benalaxyl M
500    0
clothianidin + benalaxyl M (1:625)
15    found* calc.**
0.8+ 500    80    35
* found = activity found
** calc. = activity calculated using Colby's formula
 
-29-
Example B
Phaedon cochleariae larvae test
Solvent:    7 parts by weight of dimethylformamide
Emulsifier:    2 parts by weight of alkylaryl polyglycol ether
5 To produce a suitable preparation of active compound, 1 part by weight of active compound is mixed with the stated amounts of solvent and emulsifier, and the concentrate is diluted with emulsifier-containing water to the desired concentration.
Cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea) are treated by being dipped into the preparation of active compound of the desired concentration and populated with larvae of the mustard beetle (Phaedon 10    cochleariae) while the leaves are still moist.
After the desired period of time, the kill in % is determined. 100% means that all beetle larvae have been killed; 0% means that none of the beetle larvae have been killed. The determined kill rates are entered into Colby's formula.
In this test, the following active compound combination in accordance with the present application 15 showed a synergistically enhanced activity compared to the active compounds applied individually (table B):
 
        -30-
    Table B1
        Plant-damaging insects
Phaedon cochleariae larvae test
5    Active compound    Concentration    Kill
in ppm    in % after 4 days
10        clothianidin
4    40
        metalaxyl M
500    0
       

15 clothianidin + metalaxyl M (1 : 125)
found* calc.**
4+ 500    65    40
* found = activity found
20    ** calc. = activity calculated using Colby' s formula
 
- 31 -
Table B2
Plant-damaging insects
Phaedon cochleariae larvae test
5
Active compound    Concentration    Kill
        in ppm    in % after 6 days
10    clothianidin    4    60
    benalaxyl M    500    0
       

15 benalaxyl
500    0
clothianidin + benalaxyl M (1 : 125)
found* calc.**
20    4+ 500    80    60
clothianidin + benalaxyl (1:125)
found* calc.**
4+ 500    70    60
25
* found = activity found
** calc. = activity calculated using Colby's formula
 
- 32 -
Claims
1.    A composition comprising a synergistically effective mixture of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of
(a)    benalaxyl M and metalaxyl M
and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of
5    (b)    clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, nitenpyram
and dinotefuran.
2.    A composition comprising a synergistically effective mixture of metalaxyl M and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, nitenpyram and dinotefuran.
10    3.    A composition comprising a synergistically effective mixture of benalaxyl M and at least
one compound selected from the group consisting of clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, nitenpyram and dinotefuran.
4.    A composition comprising a synergistically effective mixture of clothianidin and metalaxyl
M.
15 5.    A composition comprising a synergistically effective mixture of clothianidin and benalaxyl
M.
6.    The composition as claimed in any of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the weight ratio
of the compound of group (b) as set forth in claim 1 to the mixing partner is between 625:1 and 1:50.
20 7.    The use of a composition as claimed in any of claims 1 to 6 for treating seed.
8.    The use of a composition as claimed in any of claims 1 to 6 for controlling animal pests.
9.    A method for controlling pests, characterized in that compositions as claimed in any of claims 1 to 6 are allowed to act on the pests and/or their habitat.
10.    A process for preparing pesticides, characterized in that a synergistically effective mixture
25    as claimed in any of claims 1 to 6 is mixed with extenders and/or surfactants.
11.    Seed, characterized in that it has been treated with a composition as claimed in any of claims 1 to 6.
 
S    rinticjokluaticid
Abstract
The present ifivtolibri it    to nowt active compeand combination% ,-...ompriaing as active
5 cornpaund_.. fitly at% arrive composind from the group of the numicorinoids and. secondly, at leaNt one &live compound Nelccled from the group of the amino acid derivative*, henataxyl M and mettdaY..y1 M, to their usy as pesticides and seed dressings for the treatment of seed, ti) med-io4i3 for controlling Rests and fur protecting seed and to seed treated with the native erimponnd combinations according to the invention,
 
indexation.Ist QCOK tags.Ist

 

 

 

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