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(11) Patent Number: KE 320 (45) Date of grant: 04/06/2009
Kenya Indestrbl Property IlwOtute.
(19) Kenya Industrial Property Institute.
(51) Int.C1.7: A 01N 37/18, 43/56
(21)Application KE/P/ 2006/ 000521 (84) WO No. WO 2005/104844 Al
(22)Filing Date: 22/04/2005
(31)Priority Number: 10 2004 020 840.9 (32) Date: 27/04/2004 (33) Country: DE
(73) Owner(s): Bayer Cropscience Aktiengesellschaft of Alfred-Nobel-Str 50, 40789 Monheim, Germany
(74) Agent/address for correspondence: REIZLEIN, Karl; ; ROCHLING, Andreas; and BAUR, Peter;
Kaplan & Stratton Advocates,
(54) Title: USE OF ALKYKL CARBOXYLIC ACID AMIDES AS PENETRATION
(57) Abstract: Use of alkyl carboxylic acid amides having formula (I): R1-CO-NR2R3,wherein R1 = C3-C19-Alkyl, R2 = C1-C6-alkyl and R3 =1-1 or C1-C6-alkyl, for promoting the penetration of agrochemical active substances in plants.
- I -
Use of alkylcarboxamides as penetrants
The invention relates to the use of N-monoalkyl- and N,N-dialkyl-alkylcarboxamides in plant protection compositions and plant protection compositions comprising such compounds.
EP-A 0 453 899 discloses the use of N,N-dimethyl-05-C19-alkylcarboxamides as crystallization 5 inhibitors for certain azole fungicides, such as tebuconazole, which have a tendency to crystallize.
Surprisingly, it has now been found that alkylcarboxamides are suitable for increasing the penetration of agrochemical active substances across the cuticle of the plant and therefore for increasing the biological activity of plant protection compositions.
The present invention therefore relates to the use of carboxamides of the formula (1) 10 R1-CO-NR2R3 (1)
R1 represents C3-C19-alkyl,
R2 represents C1-C6-alkyl and
R3 represents H or C1-C6-alkyl
15 for promoting the penetration of agrochemical active substances into plants.
R1 is preferably an unbranched or branched, saturated or unsaturated, especially preferably
unbranched, saturated alkyl group having 5 to 11 carbon atoms, very especially preferably n-heptyl or n-nonyl.
R2 and R3 are preferably identical or different, especially preferably identical, and an unbranched 20 or branched, especially preferably unbranched alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms,
very especially preferably methyl.
Especially preferred compounds of the formula (I) are therefore those of the formula (Ia) R1-CO-N(CH3)2 (Ia)
25 R1 has the abovementioned meanings.
The following are very especially preferred: N,N-dimethyI-n-hexanamide, N,N-dimethyl¬n-octanamide, N,N-dimethyl-n-decanamide and N,N-dimethyl-n-dodecanamide, in particular N,N-dimethyl-n-octanamide and N,N-dimethyl-n-decanamide.
The compounds of the formula (I) are employed individually or in the form of mixtures. Preferred
5 is not only the use of individual active substances but also the use of a mixture which is known under the trade names Hallcomid, Genagen or Agnique and which consists on average of 5% (unless otherwise specified, all percentages are per cent by weight) N,N-dimethyl-hexanamide, 50% N,N-dimethyl-octanamide, 40% N,N-dimethyl-decanamide and 5% N,N-dimethyl-dodecanamide.
10 The acid amides of the formula (I) are known and commercially available.
The amount of one or more compounds of the formula (1) for the use according to the invention in plant protection compositions can vary within wide limits, depending on the active substance and the formulation type.
In a preferred embodiment, the acid amides of the formula (1) thus additionally act as solvents,
15 while in another, likewise preferred embodiment, they act as additives for improving the biological activity. A further possibility is also the use as a tank mix additive, i.e. the addition to the spray mixture of the formulation and not as integral component of the formulation, and the use of the formulation as mixing partner for improving the biological activity of other agents as the result of an enhanced penetration.
20 Plant protection compositions according to the invention, i.e. plant protection compositions which, in accordance with the invention, comprise one or more acid amides (1) for increasing the penetration of the active substance into plants, preferably have the following composition:
1 to 90%, especially preferably 5 to 50%, of one or more agrochemical active substances,
I to 90%, especially preferably 5 to 70%, of one or more acid amides of the formula (I) 25 and
0 to 98% of other additives.
lithe acid amides of the formula (1) do not act as solvents, but as pure additives for promoting the
penetration of active substances into plants, they are preferably present in the plant protection
compositions according to the invention in an amount of from I to 30%, especially preferably from
30 5 to 20%, in particular from 5 to 10%.
Since the mechanism of action of the acid amides (I) as penetrants is intrinsically independent of the nature of the agrochemical active substance employed, it is possible to use all active substances whose biological activity can be increased as the result of an enhanced penetration into a crop plant or a harmful plant.
5 The following may be mentioned by preference: fungicides, bactericides, insecticides, acaricides,
nematicides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, plant nutrients, repellents with systemic properties, and contact-acting agents which are suitable as combination partners.
Furthermore preferred are systemic active substances, i.e. those which are taken up by the plant via
the leaves or the roots and which are translocated in the sap, the plant's transport system.
10 Especially preferred active substances are those with a log P value of < 4 (determined as specified in EC Directive 79/831 Annex V. AS by HPLC, gradient method, acetonitrile/0.l% aqueous phosphoric acid), in particular those with a log P value of 4 and 0.1.
Examples of individual active substances are: Fungicides:
15 2-phenylphenol; 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate; acibenzolar-S-methyl; aldimorph; amidoflumet; ampro-
pylfos; ampropylfos-potassium; andoprim; anilazine; azaconazole; azoxystrobin; benalaxyl; benalaxyl-
M; benodanil; benomyl; benthiavalicarb-isopropyl; benzamacril; benzamacril-isobutyl; bilanafos; bina-
pacryl; biphenyl; bitertanol; blasticidin-S; boscalid; bromuconazole; bupirimate; buthiobate; butylamine;
calcium polysulphide; capsimycin; captafol; captan; carbendazim; carboxin; carpropamid; carvone;
20 quinomethionate; chlobenthiazone; chlorfenazole; chloroneb; chlorothalonil; chlozolinate; clozylacon;
cyazofamid; cyflufenamid; cymoxanil; cyproconazole; cyprodinil; cyprofuram; Dagger Gr, debacarb;
dichlofluanid; dictione; dichlorophen; diclocymet; diclomezine; dicloran; diethofencarb;
difenoconazole; diflumetorim; dimethirimol; dimethomorph; dimoxystrobin; diniconazole; dinicon-
azole-M; dinocap; diphenylamine; dipyrithione; ditalimfos; dithianon; dodine; drazoxolon; edifenphos;
25 epoxiconazole; ethaboxam; ethirimol; etridiazole; famoxadone; fenamidone; fenapanil; fenarimol;
fenbuconazole; fenfuram; fenhexamid; fenitropan; fenoxanil; fenpiclonil; fenpropidin; fenpropimorph;
ferbam; fluazinam; flubenzimine; fludioxonil; flumetover; NI:morph; fluoromide; fhtoxastrobin;
fluquinconazole; flurprimidol; flusilazole; flusulfamide; flutolanil; flutriafol; folpek fosetyl-Al; fosetyl-
sodium; fuberidazole; furalaxyl; furametpr; furcarbanil; furmecyclox; guazatine; hexachlorobenzene;
30 hexaconazole; hymexazol; imazalil; imibenconazole; iminoctadine triacetate; iminoctadine
tris(albesilate); iodoearb; ipconazole; iprobenfos; iprodione; iprovalicarb; irumamycin; isoprothiolane;
isovaledione; kasugamycin; kresoxim-methyl; mancozeb; maneb; meferimzone; mepanipyrim;
mepronil; metalaxyl; metalaxyl-M; metconazole; methasulfocarb; methfuroxam; metiram;
metominostrobin; metsulfovax; mildiomycin; myclobutanil; myclozoli; natamycin; nicobifen; nitrothal¬isopropyl; noviflumuron; nuarimol; ofurace; orysastrobin; oxadixyl; oxolinic acid; oxpoconazole; oxycarboxin; oxyfenthiin; paclobutrazol; pefurazoate; penconazole; pencycuron; phosdiphen; phthalide; picoxystrobin; piperalin; polyoxins; polyoxorim; probenazole; prochloraz; procymidone; propamocarb;
5 propanosine-sodium; propiconazole; propineb; proquinazid; prothioconazole; pyraclostrobin; pyrazophos; pyrife. nox; pyrimethanil; pyroquilon; Pyroxyfiir; pyrrolnitrine; quinconazole; quinoxyfen; quintozene; silthiofam; simeconazole; spiroxamine; sulfur; tebuconazole; tecloftalam; tecnazene; tetcyclacis; tetraconazole; lbiabendazole; thicyofen; thifluzamide; thiophanate-methyl; thiram; tioxymid; tolclofos-methyl; tolylfluanid; triadimefon; triadimenol; triazbutil; triazoxide; tricyclamide; tricyclazole;
10 tridemorph; trifloxystrobin; triflumizole; triforine; triticonazole; uniconazole; validamycin A; virclozolin; zineb; ziram; zoxamide; (2S)-N4244-1[3-(4-chloropheny1)-2-propynyl]oxyl-3-methoxy¬phenyliethyl)-3-methyl-2-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]butanamide; 1-(1-naphthaleny1)-1H-pyrrole-2,5- dione; 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)pyridine; 2-amino-4-methyl-N-pheny1-5-thiazolecarbox¬amide; 2-chloro-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,1,3-trimethyl-1H-inden-4-y1)-3-pyridinecarboxamide; 3,4,5-trichloro-
15 2,6-pyridinedicarbonitrile; actinovate; cis- l -(4-chloropheny1)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triaw1-1-y1)-cycloheptanol;
methyl 1-(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethy1-1H-indem-1-yft-111-imidazole-5-earboxylate; monopotassium carbonate; N-(6-methoxy-3-pyridinyl)cyclopropanecarboxamide; N-buty1-8-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1-ox•¬spiro[4.5]clecan-3-amine; sodium tetracarbonate; N-(3'4'-dichloro-5-fluorobipheny1-2-y1)-3- (difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide; and copper salts and preparations, such as
20 Bordeaux mixture; copper hydroxide, copper naphthenate; copper oxychloride; copper sulphate; cufraneb; cuprous oxide; mancopper; oxine copper.
bronopol, dichlorophen, nitrapyrin, nickel-dimethyldithiocarbamate, kasugamycin, octhilinone, furancarboxylic acid, oxytetracyclin, probenazole, streptomycin, tecloftalam, copper sulphate and 25 other copper preparations.
1. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors
1.1 carbamates (for example alanycarb, aldicarb, aldoxycarb, allyxycarb, aminocarb,
azamethiphos, bendiocarb, benfuracarb, bufencarb, butacarb, butocarboxim, butoxycarboxim,
30 carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, chloethocarb, coumaphos, cyanofenphos, cyanophos, dimetilan, ethiofencarb, fenobucarb, fenothiocarb, formetanate, furathiocarb, isoprocarb, metam-sodium, methiocarb, methomyl, metolcarb, oxamyl, pirimicarb, promecarb, propoxur, thiodicarb, thiofanox, triazamate, trimethacarb, XMC, xylylcazb)
1.2 organophosphates (for example acephate, azamethiphos, azinphos (-methyl, -ethyl), bromophos-ethyl, bromfenvinfos (-methyl), butathiofos, cadusafos, carbophenothion, chlorethoxyfos, chlorfenvinphos, chlormephos, chlorpyrifos (-methyl/-ethyl), coumaphos, cyanofenphos, cyanophos, chlorfenvinphos, demeton-S-methyl, demeton-S-methyl sulphone,
5 dialifos, diazinon, dichiofenthion, dichlorvos/DDVP, dicrotophos, dimethoate, dimethylvinphos, dioxabenzofoS, disulfoton, EPN, ethion, ethoprophos, etrimfos, famphur, fenamiphos, fenitrothion, fensulfothion, fenthion, flupyrazofos, fonofos, formothion, fosmethilan, fosthiazate, heptenophos, iodofenphos, iprobenfos, isazofos, isofenphos, isopropyl 0-salicylate, isoxathion, malathion, mecarbam, methacrifos, methamidophos, methidathion, mevinphos, monocrotophos, naled,
10 omethoate, oxydemeton-methyl, parathion (-methyl/-ethyl), phenthoate, phorate, phosalone, phosmet, phosphamidon, phosphocarb, phoxim, pirimiphos (-methyl/-ethyl), profenofos, propaphos, propetamphos, prothiofos, prothoate, pyraclofos, pyridaphenthion, pyridathion, quinalphos, sebufos, sulfotep, sulprofos, tebupirimfos, temephos, terbufos, tetrachlorvinphos, thiometon, triazophos, triclorfon, vamidothion)
15 2. Sodium channel modulators/voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers
2.1 pyrethroids (for example acrinathrin, allethrin (d-cis-trans, d-trans), beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, bioallethrin, bioallethrin-S-cyclopentyl-isomer, bioethanomethrin, biopermethrin, bioresmethrin, chlovaporthrin, cis-cypermethrin, cis-resmethrin, cis-permethrin, clocythrin, cycloprothrin, cyflu¬thrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin (alpha-, beta-, theta-, zeta-), cyphenothrin, DDT, deltamethrin,
20 empenthrin (1R isomer), esfenvalerate, etofenprox, fenfluthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyrithrin, fen-valerate, flubrocythrinate, flucythrinate, flufenprox, flumethrin, fluvalinate, fubfenprox, gamma¬cyhalothrin, imiprothrin, kadethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, metofluthrin, permethrin (cis-, trans-), phenothrin (1R-trans isomer), prallethrin, profluthrin, protrifenbute, pyresmethrin, resmethrin, RU 15525, silafluofen, tau-fluvalinate, tefluthrin, terallethrin, tetramethrin (1R-isomer), tralomethrin,
25 transfluthrin, ZXI 8901, pyrethrins (pyrethrum))
2.2 oxadiazines (for example indoxacarb)
3. Acetylcholine receptor agonists/antagonists
3.1 Chloronicotinyls/neonicotinoids (for example acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam)
30 3.2 nicotine, bensultap, cartap
4. Acetylcholine receptor modulators
4.1 spinosyns (for example spinosad)
5. GABA-controlled chloride channel antagonists
5.1 cyclodiene organochlorines (for example camphechlor, chlordane, endosulfan, gamma-HCH, HCH, heptachlor, lindane, methoxychlor)
5 5.2 fiprols (for example acetoprole, ethiprole, fipronil, vaniliprole)
6. Chloride channel activators
6.1 mectins (for example abamectin, avermectin, emamectin, emamectin-benzoate, ivermectin, milbemectin, milbemycin)
7. Juvenile hormone mimetics
10 (for example diofenolan, epofenonane, fenoxycarb, hydroprene, kinoprene, methoprene, pyriproxifen, triprene)
8. Ecdysone agonists/disruptors 8.1 diacylhydrazines (for example chromafenozide, halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide)
9. Chitin biosynthesis inhibitors
15 9.1 benzoylureas (for example bistrifluron, chlofluazuron, diflubenzuron, fluazuron,
flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron, novaluron, noviflumuron, penfluron, teflubenzuron, triflumuron)
20 10. Inhibitors of oxidative phosphopylation, ATP disruptors
10.2 organotin compounds (for example azocyclotin, cyhexatin, fenbutatin-oxide) 11. Uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation by interrupting the H proton gradient 11.1 pyrroles (for example chlorfenapyr)
11.2 dinitrophenols (for example binapacyrl, dinobuton, dinocap, DNOC)
12. Site-I electron transport inhibitors
12.1 METIs (for example fenazaquin, fenpyroximate, pyrimidifen, pyridaben, tebufenpyrad, tolfenpyrad)
5 12.2 hydramethylnon
13. Site-II electron transport inhibitors
14. Site-III electron transport inhibitors
10 14.1 acequinocyl, fluacrypyrim
15. Microbial disruptors of the insect gut membrane Bacillus thuringiensis strains
16. Fat synthesis inhibitors
16.1 tetronic acids (for example spirodiclofen, spiromesifen)
15 16.2 tetramic acids [for example 3-(2,5-dimethylpheny1)-8-methoxy-2-oxo-1 -azaspiro[4.5]dec-3-
en-4-y1 ethyl carbonate (also known as: carbonic acid, 3-(2,5-dimethylpheny1)-8-methoxy-2-oxo-l¬azaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-4-y1 ethyl ester, CAS-Reg.-No.: 382608-10-8) and carbonic acid, cis-3-(2,5- dimethylpheny1)-8-methoxy-2-oxo-1-azaspiro[4.51dee-3-en-4-y1 ethyl ester (CAS-Reg.-No.: 203313-25-1)]
20 17. Carboxamides
(for example flonicamid)
18. Octopaminergtc agonists
(for example amitraz)
19. Inhibitors of magnesium-stimulated ATPase
(for example propargite)
(for example N241,1-dimethy1-2-(methylsulphonyl)ethy11-3-iodo-N142-methyl-441,2,2,2-
tetrafluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]pheny11-1,2-benzenedicarboxamide (CAS-Reg.-No.: 272451¬65-7), flubendiamide)
21. Nereistoxin analogues
(for example thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate, thiosultap-sodium)
22. Biologicals, hormones or pheromones
(for example azadirachtin, Bacillus spec., Beauveria spec., codlemone, Metarrhizium spec., 10 Paecilomyces spec., thuringiensin, Verticillium spec.)
23. Active compounds with unknown or unspecific mechanisms of action
23.1 fumigants (for example aluminium phosphide, methyl bromide, sulphuryl fluoride) 23.2 selective antifeedants (for example cryolite, flonicamid, pymetrozine)
23.3 mite growth inhibitors (for example clofentezine, etoxazole, hexythiazox)
15 23.4 amidoflumet, benclothiaz, benzoximate, bifenazate, bromopropylate, buprofezin, quinomethionate, chlordimeform, chlorobenzilate, chloropicrin, clothiazoben, cycloprene, cyflu¬metofen, dicyclanil, fenoxacrim, fentrifanil, flubenzimine, flufenerim, flutenzin, gossyplure, hydra¬methylnone, japonilure, metoxadiazone, petroleum, piperonyl butoxide, potassium oleate, pyrafluprole, pyridalyl, pyriprole, sulfluramid, tetradifon, tetrasul, triarathene, verbutin,
20 furthermore the compound 3-methylphenyl propylcarbamate (tsumacide Z), the compound 3-(5-chloro¬3-pyridiny1)-8-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-8-azabicyclop.2.1joctane-3-carbonitrile (CAS-Reg.-No. 185982¬80-3) and the corresponding 3-endo isomer (CAS-Reg.-No. 185984-60-5) (cf. WO 96/37494, WO 98/25923), and preparations which contain insecticidally active plant extracts, nematodes, fungi or viruses.
Anilides such as, for example, diflufenican and propanil; arylearboxylic acids such as, for
example, dichloropicolinic acid, dicarnba and picloram; aryloxyalkanoic acids such as, for
example, 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, 2,4-DP, fluroxypyr, MCPA, MCPP and triclopyr; aryloxyphenoxy-
alkanoic esters, such as, for example, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl and quizalofop-ethyl; azinones, such as, for example, chloridazon and norflurazon; carbamates such as, for example, chlorpropham, desmedipham, phemnedipham and propham; chloroacetanilides such as, for example, alachlor, acetochlor, butachlor, metazachlor,
5 metolachlor, pretilachlor and propachlor; dinitroanilines such as, for example, oryzalin, pendimethalin and trifluralin; diphenyl ethers such as, for example, acifluorfen, bifenox, fluoroglycofen, fomesafen, halosafen, lactofen and oxyfluorfen; ureas such as, for example, chlortoluron, diuron, fluometuron, isoproturon, linuron and methabenzthiazuron; hydroxylamines such as, for example, alloxydim, clethodim, cycloxydim, sethoxydim and tralkoxydim;
10 imidazolinones such as, for example, imazethapyr, imazamethabenz, imazapyr and imazaquin; nitriles such as, for example, bromoxynil, dichlobenil and ioxynil; oxyacetamides such as, for example, mefenacet; sulphonylureas such as, for example, amidosulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorsulfuron, cinosulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron and tribenuron-methyl; thiocarbamates
15 such as, for example, butylate, cycloate, di-allate, EPTC, esprocarb, molinate, prosulfocarb, thio¬bencarb and tri-allate; triazines such as, for example, atrazin, cyanazin, simazin, simetryne, terbutryne and terbutylazin; triazinones such as, for example, hexazinon, metamitron and metribuzin; others such as, for example, aminotriazole, 4-amino-N-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4,5- dihydro-3-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazole-l-carboxamide, benfuresate, bentazone,
20 cinmethylin, clomazone, clopyralid, difenzoquat, dithiopyr, ethofumesate, fluorochloridone,
glufosinate, glyphosate, isoxaben, pyridate, quinchlorac, quinmerac, sulphosate and tridiphane.
Examples of plant growth regulators which may be mentioned are chlorcholin chloride, thidiazuron, cyclanilide, ethephon, benzyladenine and gibberellic acid, and examples of the safener groups which may be mentioned are mefenpyr, isoxadifen and cloquintocet-mexyl.
25 Examples of plant nutrients which may be mentioned are conventional inorganic or organic fertilizers for providing plants with macronutrients and/or micronutrients.
Examples of repellents which may be mentioned are diethyltolylamide, ethylhexanediol and butopyronoxyl.
Preferred examples of fungicides are the strobilurin fungicides such as, for example,
Preferred examples of fungicides which may be mentioned are prothioconazole, fluoxastrobin, trifloxystrobin, spiroxamine and tebuconazole.
5 Prothioconazole is especially preferred, if appropriate as a mixture with one or more of the following active substances: spiroxamine, tebuconazole, fluoxastrobin, trifloxystrobin.
The formulation types which are suitable include all formulations which are applied to plants or
their propagation material. The methods used for preparing them are generally known to the skilled
worker and for example described in Winnacker-Kiichler, "Chemische Technologic" [Chemical
10 Technology], volume 7, C. Hanser Verlag Munich, 4th edition, 1986; J.W. van Valkenburg, "Pesticide Formulations", Marcel Dekker N.Y., 1973, K. Martens, "Spray Drying Handbook", 3rd Ed. 1979, G. Goodwin Ltd., London, or Mollet, Grubenmann, "Formulierungstechnik" [Formulation Technology], Wiley-VCH-Verlag, Weinheim, 2000.
Examples of formulation types are all those mentioned in the "Manual on development and use of
15 FAO and WHO specifications for pesticides" (FAO and WHO, 2002, appendix E) (in each case
using the GCPF formulation codes with English abbreviation and name): AB Grain bait; AE
Aerosol dispenser; AL Any other liquid; AP Any other powder; CF Capsule Suspension for Seed
Treatment; CG Encapsulated granule; CL Contact liquid or gel; CP Contact powder; CS Capsule
suspension; DC Dispersible concentrate; DP Dustable powder; DS Powder for dry seed treatment;
20 DT Tablet for direct application; EC Emulsifiable concentrate; ED Electrochargeable liquid; EG
Emulsifiable Granule; EO Emulsion, water in oil; EP emulsifiable powder, ES Emulsion for seed
- 14 -
treatment; EW Emulsion, oil in water; FG Fine granule; FS Flowable concentrate for seed treatment; GF Gel for Seed Treatment; GG Macrogranule; GL Emulsifiable gel; GP Flo-dust; GR Granule; GS Grease; GW Water soluble gel; 1114 Hot fogging concentrate; KK Combi-pack solid/liquid; KL Combi-pack liquid/liquid; KN Cold fogging concentrate; KP Combi-pack
5 solid/solid; LA Lacquer; LS Solution for seed treatment; ME Microemulsion; MG Microgranule; OD oil dispersion, OF Oil miscible flowable concentrate/oil miscible suspension; OL Oil miscible liquid; OP Oil dispersible powder; PA Paste; PC Gel or paste concentrate; PO Pour-on; PR Plant rodlet; PS Seed coated with a pesticide; PT Pellet; RB Bait (ready for use); SA Spot-on; SC suspension concentrate, SD suspension concentrate for direct application, SE Suspo-emulsion; SG
10 Water soluble granule; SL Soluble concentrate; SO Spreading oil; SP Water soluble powder; SS Water soluble powder for seed treatment; ST Water soluble tablet; SU Ultra-low volume (ULV) suspension; TB Tablet; TC Technical material; TK Technical concentrate; UL Ultra-low volume (ULV) liquid; VP Vapour releasing product; WG Water dispersible granules; WP Wettable powder; WS Water dispersible powder for slurry seed treatment; WT Water dispersible tablet; XX
Liquid formulation types are preferred. These include the formulation types DC (GCPF formulation code for dispersible concentrate); EC (GCPF formulation code for emulsion concentrate); EW (GCPF formulation code for oil-in-water emulsion); ES (GCPF formulation code for emulsion for seed treatment), FS (GCPF formulation code for multiphase concentrate for seed
20 treatment), EO (GCPF formulation code for water-in-oil emulsion; ME (GCPF formulation code for microemulsion; SE (GCPF formulation code for suspo-emulsion); SL (GCPF formulation code for soluble concentrate); CS (GCPF formulation code for capsule suspension) and AL (GCPF formulation code for ready-to-use liquid formulation, any other liquids for undiluted use).
Emulsion concentrates (formulation type EC) are especially preferred.
25 Suitable additives which may be present in the formulations according to the invention, preferably the liquid formulations according to the invention, are all customary formulation adjuvants such as organic solvents, antifoams, emulsifiers, dispersants, preservatives, acids and bases, colorants, fillers and also water.
Antifoams which are suitable are conventional antifoams which are present in formulations of 30 agrochemical active substances. Examples which may be mentioned are silicone oils, silicone oil dispersions, magnesium stearate, phosphinic and phosphonic acids, in particular Fluowet PL SO®.
Suitable organic solvents are not only alkanecarboxamides, such as those of the formula (I), but
also all customary organic solvents which thoroughly dissolve the agrochemically active
substances employed. The following may be mentioned as being preferred: aliphatic and aromatic, optionally halogenated hydrocarbons such as toluene, xylene, Solvesso®, mineral oils such as white spirit, petroleum, alkylbenzenes and spindle oil, furthermore tetrachloromethane, chloroform, methylene chloride and dichloromethane, and furthermore esters such as ethyl acetate,
5 lactates, furthermore lactones such as butyrolactone, moreover lactams such as N-methylpyrrolidone, N-octylpyrrolidone, N-dodecylpyrrolidone, N-octylcaprolactam and N-methylcaprolactam, y-butyrolactone, dimethylformamide and tributyl phosphate.
Preference is given to carboxamides of the formula (1). Especially preferred are N,N-dimethyl¬n-octanamide and N,N-dimethyl-n-decanamide and their mixtures.
10 Suitable emulsifiers are conventionally used surface-active substances which are present in
formulations of agrochemically active substances. Examples which may be mentioned are ethoxylated nonylphenols, polyethylene glycol ethers of linear alcohols, end-capped and non-end¬capped alkoxylated linear and branched, saturated and unsaturated alcohols, reaction products of alkylphenols with ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide, ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block
15 copolymers, polyethylene glycols and polypropylene glycols, furthermore fatty acid esters, end-capped and non-end-capped alkoxylated linear and branched, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid polyglycol ether esters, alkylsulphonates, alkyl sulphates, aryl sulphates, ethoxylated arylalkylphenols such as, for example tristyryl phenol ethoxylate with an average of 16 ethylene oxide units per molecule, furthermore ethoxylated and propoxylated arylalkylphenols and
20 sulphated or phosphated arylalkylphenol ethoxylates or -ethoxy- and —propoxylates. Especially preferred are tristyrylphenol alkoxylates and fatty acid polyglycol ether esters. Very especially preferred are tristyrylphenol ethoxylates, tristyrylphenol ethoxy-propoxylates and castor oil polyglycol ether esters, in each case individually or in mixtures. If appropriate, additives such as surfactants or esters of fatty acids which contribute to improving the biological activity may also
25 be used.
Dispersants which can be used are all substances which are conventionally employed in plant protection compositions for this purpose. hi addition to the examples which are mentioned hereinabove as emulsifiers, the following may be mentioned by preference: natural and synthetic, water-soluble polymers such as gelatin, starch and cellulose derivatives, in particular cellulose
30 esters and cellulose ethers, furthermore polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic and copolymers of (meth)acrylic acid and (meth)acrylic esters, and furthermore alkali-metal-hydroxide-neutralized copolymers of methacrylic acid and methacrylic esters.
- 16 -
Preservatives which can be used are all substances which are conventionally present in plant treatment compositions for this purpose. Examples which may be mentioned are Preventol® and Proxel®.
Colorants which are suitable are all inorganic or organic colorants which are conventionally used for the preparation of plant protection compositions. Examples which may be mentioned are titanium dioxide, carbon black, zinc oxide and blue pigments.
Fillers which are suitable are all substances which are conventionally employed in plant protection
compositions for this purpose. The following may be mentioned by preference: inorganic particles,
such as carbonates, silicates and oxides with a mean particle size of from 0.005 to 5 pm, especially
10 preferably from 0.02 to 2 gm. Examples which may be mentioned are silicon dioxide, what are
known as highly dispersed silica, silica gels, and natural and synthetic silicates and alumosilicates.
Suitable compounds which act as emulsion stabilizers and/or crystallization inhibitors are all substances which are conventionally employed in plant protection compositions for this purpose.
The content of the individual components in the formulations according to the invention can be 15 varied within a substantial range.
The preparation of the formulations according to the invention is accomplished for example in such a manner that the components are mixed with one another in the described ratios. If the agrochemical active substance is a solid, the latter is generally employed in finely ground form or in the form of a solution or suspension in an organic solvent or water. If the agrochemical active
20 substance is liquid, the use of an organic solvent can frequently be dispensed with. Moreover, a solid agrochemical substance may be employed in the form of a melt.
When carrying out the process, the temperatures can be varied within a certain range. In general, the process is carried out at temperatures of between 0°C and 80°C, preferably between 10°C and 60°C.
25 When carrying out the process according to the invention, a procedure is generally followed in which the acid amides (1) are mixed with one or more active substances and, if appropriate, with additives. The components can be mixed with one another in any order.
The equipment which is suitable for carrying out the process according to the invention is customary equipment which is employed for the preparation of agrochemical formulations.
30 Suitable application forms are all those methods which are known to the skilled worker as being conventionally used; examples which may be mentioned are: spraying, immersion, misting and a
- 17 -
series of specific methods for the direct below- or above-ground treatment of whole plants or parts (seeds, root, stolons, stalks, stem, leaf), such as, for example, in the case of trees the injection into the stem or in the case of perennial plants stalk bands, and a series of specific indirect application methods.
5 The specific application rate of the plant protection compositions of a wide range of formulation types for controlling the abovementioned harmful organisms, either based on area and/or the object to be treated varies greatly. In general, the application media which are known to the skilled worker as being conventionally used for the field of application in question, are employed in customary amounts, such as, for example, from several hundred litres of water per hectare in the
10 case of standard spray methods to a few litres of oil per hectare in the case of 'Ultra Low Volume' aerial application to a few millilitres of a physiological solution in the case of injection methods. The concentrations of the plant protection compositions according to the invention in the relevant application media therefore vary within a wide range and depend on the specific field of application. In general, concentrations are used which are known to the skilled worker as being
15 conventionally used for the specific field of application. Preferred concentrations are from 0.01% by weight to 99% by weight, especially preferred concentrations from 0.1% by weight to 90% by weight.
The agrochemical formulations according to the invention, for example in the use forms which are
conventional for liquid preparations, can be applied either as such or after previously having been
20 diluted with water, that is to say for example as emulsions, suspensions or solutions. The application here is accomplished by the customary methods, that is to say, for example, by spraying, pouring or injecting.
The application rate of the agrochemical formulations according to the invention can be varied within a substantial range. It depends on the agrochemical active substances in question and on 25 their content in the formulations.
The invention furthermore relates to a method of promoting the penetration of agrochemical active substances into plants, the agrochemical active substance being applied to the plants either simultaneously or sequentially with one or more acid amides of the formula (1).
Some of the plant protection compositions according to the invention are known and some are 30 new.
The invention also relates to a plant protection composition comprising
a) 1 to 80% of one or more acid amides of the formula (1) as stated above,
- 18 -
b) 1 to 90% of one or more agrochemical active substances and
c) 0 to 98% of additives,
the following agrochemical substances being excluded: A. an azole derivative of the formula (II)
5 in which
represents CHT- CH2 CL
represents tert-butyl and represents hydroxyl,
represents 4-fluoropheny I, represents 2-fluorophenyl and represents hydroxyl,
represents 2,4-dichlorophenyl, represents n-butyl and
represents - CH- FI2 CL
represents phenyl and represents cyano,
represents 2-chlorobenzyl, represents 1-chlorocycloprop-1-y1
R3 represents hydroxyl,
5 f) R' represents 4-chlorophenyl
R2 represents — C-1—‹
R3 represents hydroxyl,
an azole derivative of the formula (111)
0 —CH —Y —C(CH3)3 II 1\/,
20 a) Y represents –CH(OH) and
R4 represents chlorine or phenyl,
b) Y represents CO and
25 R4 represents chlorine,
an azole derivative of the formula (IV)
CI CH=C —CH —C(CH3)3
30 in which
RS represents hydrogen or chlorine,
B. a carbamate of the formula (VI)
Ar —C —NRR'
Ar represents an aryl group or a heterocyclic group, each of which is optionally
10 R, R' represent H or methyl; and
The invention also relates to a plant protection composition comprising
15 a) 1 to 30%, preferably 5 to 20%, especially preferably 5 to 10%, of one or more acid amides
of the formula (I) as stated above,
1 to 90% of one or more agrochemical active substances and c) 0 to 98% of additives,
excluding tebuconazole and triadimenol as agrochemical active substances.
20 Preferred plant protection compositions according to the invention are those which comprise prothioconazole as agrochemical active substance, if appropriate in mixture with further agrochemical active substances.
As regards the use of herbicides, the plants treated in accordance with the invention are all weed
species. As regards the protection of crop plants by the application of, for example, fungicides and
25 insecticides, the use in economically important, including, for example, transgenic, crops of useful
plants and ornamentals, for example cereals such as wheat, barley, rye, oats, sorghum and millet,
- 21 -
rice, cassava and maize, or else crops of peanut, sugar beet, cotton, soya, oilseed rape, potato, tomato, pea and vegetables is preferred.
The invention is illustrated in greater detail by the examples without being limited thereto.
Examples Penetration test
In this test, the measured quantity was the penetration of active substances across enzymatically isolated cuticles of apple tree leaves.
5 The leaves used were leaves which had been excised in the fully developed state from cv. Golden Delicious. The cuticles were isolated in such a way that
- first, using the vacuum infiltration method, leaf discs which had been marked with dye and
punched from the underside were filled with a pectinase solution (0.2 to 2% strength) which had been buffered to a pH of between 3 and 4,
10 - then, sodium azide was added and
- the leaf discs treated thus were left to stand until the original leaf structure had
disintegrated and the noncellular cuticle had detached itself.
Thereafter, only the cuticles of the upper side of the leaf which were free from stomata and hairs
were used. They were washed repeatedly, alternating with water and a buffer solution of pH 7. The
15 resulting clean cuticles were finally applied to Teflon discs and smoothed and dried using a weak stream of air.
In the next step, the cuticle membranes obtained were placed into stainless-steel diffusion cells
(= transport chambers) in order to carry out membrane transport studies. To this end, tweezers
were used to place the cuticles centrally on the edges of the diffusion cells which had been painted
20 with silicone fat and sealed using a ring, which had also been painted with fat. The arrangement had been chosen in such a way that the morphological external side of the cuticles was directed outwardly, that is to say facing the air, while the original internal side faced the inside of the diffusion cell. The diffusion cells were filled with water or with a mixture of water and solvent.
To determine the penetration, in each case 9 p.I of a spray mixture of the composition mentioned in 25 the examples were applied to the external side of a cuticle.
In the spray mixtures, CIPAC water was used in each case.
After the spray mixtures had been applied, the water was left to evaporate in each case, and the
chambers were then inverted and placed into temperature-controlled cans, the external side of the
cuticle being flushed with air at a defined temperature and humidity. The beginning of the
- 23 -
penetration therefore took place at a relative atmospheric humidity of 60% and a set temperature of
25°C. The penetration of the active substance was measured using a radiolabelled active substance.
As can be seen with reference to the examples in the table, the presence of acid amides (in the
present case N,N-dimethyldecanamide by way of example) gives rise to a substantially increased
5 uptake in comparison with the formulations which lack the acid amides. The employed alternatives to the acid amide are examples of commercially available solvents for formulations.
Table, Example 1:
The active substance is dissolved in an acetone / water mixture at a concentration of 0.5 g/l, and the penetration is measured after 3 and 48 hours.
10 Table, Example 2:
The water is mixed together with formulation adjuvants and N,N-dimethyldecanamide and this mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution again contains an active substance concentration of 0.5 g,/1. As in Ex. 1, the penetration was then measured after 3 and 48 hours.
Table, Example 3:
15 The active substance is mixed together with formulation adjuvants and N-methylpyrrolidone and this mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution contains an active substance concentration of 0.5 g/l. The penetration was measured after 3 and 48 hours.
Table, Example 4:
The active substance is mixed together with formulation adjuvants and y-butyrolactone and this 20 mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution contains an active substance concentration of 0.5 el. The penetration was measured after 3 and 48 hours.
Table, Example 5:
The active substance is mixed together with formulation adjuvants and N,N-dimethyldecanamide and this mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution contains an active substance 25 concentration of 1.0 g/I. As in Ex. 1, the penetration was then measured after 3 and 48 hours.
Table, Example 6:
The active substance is mixed together with formulation adjuvants and N-methylpyrrolidone and this mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution contains an active substance concentration of 1.0 g/1. The penetration was measured after 3 and 48 hours.
- 24 -
Table, Example 7:
The active substance is mixed together with formulation adjuvants and y-butyrolactone and this mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution contains an active substance concentration of 1.0 WI. The penetration was measured after 3 and 48 hours.
5 Table. Example 8:
The active substances prothioconazole and tebuconazole are mixed together with formulation adjuvants and N,N-dimethyldecanamide and this mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution contains a prothioconazole concentration of 0.5 g/l. The penetration was then measured after 3 and 48 hours.
10 Table, Example 9:
The active substances prothioconazole and tebuconazole are mixed together with formulation adjuvants and N-methylpyrrolidone and this mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution contains a prothioconazole concentration of 0.5 g/l. The penetration was then measured after 3 and 48 hours.
15 Table, Example 10:
The active substances prothioconazole and tebuconazole are mixed together with formulation adjuvants and y-butyrolactone and this mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution contains a prothioconazole concentration of 0.5 g/l. The penetration was then measured after 3 and 48 hours.
Table, Example 11:
20 The active substances prothioconazole and spiroxamine are mixed together with formulation adjuvants and N,N-dimethyldecanamide and this mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution contains a prothioconazole concentration of 0.5 g/l. The penetration was measured after 3 and 48 hours.
Table, Example 12:
25 The active substances prothioconazole and spiroxamine are mixed together with formulation adjuvants and N-methylpyrrolidone and this mixture is diluted with water so that the dilution contains a prothioconazole concentration of 0.5 WI. The penetration was measured after 3 and 48 hours.
Table, Example 13:
30 The active substances prothioconazole and spiroxamine are mixed together with formulation adjuvants and a mixture of aromatics (boiling point 220-290 °C) and this mixture is diluted with
- 25 -
water so that the dilution contains a prothioconazole concentration of 0.5 WI. The penetration was measured after 3 and 48 hours.
- 28 -
1. Use of carboxamides of the formula (I)
5 R1 represents C3-C19-alkyl,
represents C1-C6-alkyl and
represents H or C1-C6-alkyl
for promoting the penetration of agrochemical active substances into plants.
2. Use according to Claim 1, the symbols in formula (I) having the following meanings:
10 R1 is an unbranched, saturated alkyl group having 5 to 11 carbon atoms
R2, R3 are methyl.
3. Use according to Claim 1 or 2, the acid amide of the formula (1) being N,N-dimethyl n-octanamide and/or N,N-dimethyl n-decanamide.
15 4. Use according to Claim 1, the acid amides employed being a mixture of on average 5%
N,N-dimethyl hexanamide, 50% N,N-dimethyl octanamide, 40% N,N-dimethyl decanamide and 5% N,N-dimethyl dodecanamide.
5. Use according to one or more of Claims 1 to 4, the acid amide being employed in a plant
protection composition comprising
20 1 to 90%, especially preferably 5 to 50%, of one or more agrochemical active
1 to 90%, especially preferably 5 to 70%, of one or more acid amides of the formula (I) and
0 to 98% of other additives.
6. Use according to one or more of Claims 1 to 4, the acid amide(s) being added to an aqueous spray mixture.
7. Use according to one or more of Claims 1 to 6, a systemic agrochemical substance being employed.
5 8. Use according to one or more of Claims 1 to 7, an agrochemical active substance with a
log P 4 being employed.
9. Use according to one or more of Claims 1 to 6, where one or more agrochemical active substances from the group of the strobilurin fungicides, prothioconazole, thidiazuron and N-(3'4'-dichloro-5-fluorobipheny1-2-y1)-3-(difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-
10 carboxamide are employed.
10. Use according to Claim 9, the agrochemical active substance being prothioconazole.
11. Method of promoting the penetration of agrochemical active substances into plants, where one or more agrochemical active substances are applied to the plants simultaneously or sequentially with one or more acid amides of the formula (1) according to Claim 1.
15 12. Plant protection composition comprising
a) Ito 80% of one or more acid amides of the formula (1) as stated above,
b) I to 90% of one or more agrochemical active substances and
c) 0 to 98% of additives,
the following agrochemical substances being excluded:
20 A. an azole derivative of the formula (II)
in which R3
- 30 -
a) R' represents
5 R2 represents tert-butyl and
R3 represents hydroxyl,
b) R' represents 4-fluorophenyl,
10 R2 represents 2-fluorophenyl and
R3 represents hydroxyl,
c) R' represents 2,4-dichlorophenyl,
15 R2 represents n-butyl and
R3 represents hydroxyl,
20 d) R' represents — CH2— CH2
R2 represents phenyl and
R3 represents cyano,
e) R1 represents 2-chlorobenzyl,
R2 represents 1-chlorocycloprop-1-y1
30 R3 represents hydroxyl,
f) le represents 4-chlorophenyl
R2 represents —CH <
R3 represents hydroxyl,
an azole derivative of the formula MD
O —Cr —Y—C(CH3),
a) Y represents –CH(OH) and
R4 represents chlorine or phenyl,
b) Y represents CO and
R4 represents chlorine,
CH=C —CH —C(CH3)3
Rs represents hydrogen or chlorine,
1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methylsily1]-1H-(1,2,4-triaz,ole) of the formula (V), TH3
B. a carbamate of the formula (VI)
Ar —0 —C —NRR'
- 32 -
Ar represents an aryl group or a heterocyclic group, each of which is
5 R, R' represent H or methyl; and
13. Plant protection composition comprising
10 a) 1 to 30%, of one or more acid amides of the formula (1) according to Claim 1,
b) 1 to 90% of one or more agrochemical active substances and
c) 0 to 98% of additives, excluding tebuconazole and triadimenol as agrochemical active substances.
14. Plant protection composition according to Claim 12 or 13, comprising, as agrochemical
15 active substance, prothioconazole and/or N-(3'4'-diehloro-5-fluorobipheny1-2-y1)-3-
Ike of alkvIenrboxanaides an penetrants
A b-tr act
Use of ca.rboxamides of the formula (I)
R1 represents C3-C1 -alkyl,
R2 repremits C1-C6-alkyl and
R3 represents H or el -C6-alkyl
fax promoting tibia pcnettation of agrochemical active substances into plants_
indexation.Ist QCOK tags.Ist