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(11)Patent Number:    KE318   
(45)Date of grant: 04/06/2009
(12)PATENT
(51)Int.Cl.C:    051G    3/00, 0    5F11/00, 17/00, 05G1/00
               
(21)Application Number:   KE/P/2002/000351       
           
(22)Filing Date: 22/02/2002
   
(3l)Priority Number: 
(32)Date:

(33) Country:
       
(73) Owner(s): PHYTOMEDIA INTERNATIONAL LTD of P.O. BOX 79508 NAIROBI, Kenya
       
(72) Inventor(s): CHARLES    ALEX    NJOROGE   
   
(74) Agent/address for correspondence: R.0.Shako, P.O. Box 74308, Nairobi   

(54)   Title:

(57) Abstract: FERTILIZER MIXTURE AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCING THE SAME
MIXTURE

The present invention relates to products that can be used as organic fertilizer and rooting medium and the process or method of producing such products. The Novel process is a two tier process that combines both production of fermentable organic compounds through fungal decomposition and insect digestion to arrive at products that are of purely humus and with all pertinent soil ameliorates. The product also contains nitrogen and phosphorous compounds suitable for use on a carbon source for fermentation as a rapidly acting fertilizer and soil improvement    agents/    conditioners.
The final novel material in as per this invention is an organic fertilizer with complete macro and micronutrients, which comprise of: Organic matter 20 - 34% Nitrogen 1.5-1. 8% Phosphate 1.5- 4.0% Potassium 1.3-2.7% Calcium 4.6-5.8% Magnesium 1.3- 1.43% Micronutrients (S, Mn, B. Mo, Fe, Cu) 1.2- 1.8% Organic acids Humic acid 8.21 %: Fulvic Acid 3.20% Ph 6.7-6.9
FERTILIZER MIXTURE AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCING THE SAME                 MIXTURE [B2002
The present invention relates to products that can be used as organic fertilizer and rooting medium and the process or method of producing such products .The Novel process is a two tier process that combines both production of fermentable organic compounds through fungal decomposition and insect digestion to arrive at products that are of purely humus and with all pertinent soil ameliorates .The product also contains nitrogen and phosphorous compounds suitable for use on a carbon source for fermentation as a rapidly acting fertilizer and soil improvement agents/condioners .

      The above scenario also shows that there exists a synergistic effect between water and soluble organic substances and fertilizing stock, which makes it possible for the latter to remain for a longer time in the soil without being washed out than the one where the organic substances are not present. It is also important to refer to the fact that inorganic water soluble substances have to combine with organic fertilizer at an optimum level for them to increase growth of plants.

          The present invention shows how such growth enhancing and effluent limiting mixtures can be controlled in order to produce such a fertilizing stock (fertigation) with slow nutrients release especially in young crop therefore resulting in use of less fertilizer and no leaching.

          The novel product also increases the availability of the already present nutrients like phosphorous, chelate with trace elements especially iron and makes them more available to the plants. It has been shown that many materials that are used as fertilizers contain primary compounds of nitrogen and phosphorous which release so rapid for them to be generally useful when used sparsely for release over a long period of time and supported by other fertilizers.

          The novel product promotes nutrients taken up by enhancing the permeability of the membrane, which in turn allows a more rapid entry of minerals into root cells, thus resulting into higher uptake of the plants nutrients.

          The new product also has a surprising effect caused by the presence of organic acid that weaken seed coats and therefore enhancing germination thus lowering seedling loss .The humic acid in the novel fertilizer mixture acts as a supplementary source of polyphenols which are important respiratory catalysts.

          This results into living activity and intensified enzyme systems and accelerated cell division, greater development of root systems and ultimately more and healthier plant growth.

          Further more since the novel fertilizer mixture has a naturally in-built capacity for supporting plant life at both the tissue and functional levels, the novel product mixture would find ready use as a medium for tissue culturing.

          Rooting of cuttings can be useful in dilution with soil in cases of potting and a longer establishment of commercial crop production.
          The novel product achieves an unusual property of acting as a complete soil ameliorator and a rooting medium. This ability allows for the product to be utilized in nurturing of plants from the cuttings stage to full maturity stage. The novel product allows for improved root primordial formation and accelerated callous formation in both softwood and hardwood plant cuttings.
         This Novel product has unique physical property of being porous and with a high heat retention capacity enabling for a conducive ecology for plant rooting and seed dormancy breaking.
        The Novel product manifests a perfect balance for soil microbial activity and substance to be utilized as innocullum carrier for such beneficial micro organisms such as Azotobacter nitrogen fixing bacteria, Vesicular arbuscular mycorihixal fungi (Glomous lntraradices) and Trichoderma spp.
        The novel product makes it possible for soils innolucated with such beneficial micro-organism to provide essential barrier against plant root pathogens and nematodes, increased tolerance to environmental stress and eventually increased plant growth and vigor.

          The novel product also improves soil structure and plays a surprising role buffering soil PH therefore enabling it to be used in checking unpredicted soil PH to prevent hardpan formation.

          This novel process provides a product that increases water holding capacity since it has a colloidal nature that allows it to absorb large quantities of water and therefore increasing water holding capacity of the soils. This enables the plant crops to increase tolerance to environmental stresses such as drought, high salinity and heavy metal concentration when grown in an environment where the novel fertilizer mixture is used.

          The fertilizer mixture described above is achieved through a novel process involving a mycelial action on compost through growth of saprophytic fungi, which break open the complex cellulose rich plant parts through introduction of a worms which are specially bred and innovatively introduced to the parent virgin material through a time scale that can be able to introduce a bioprocessing event giving rise to the novel fertilizer mixture.

          The invention also relates to a method of production of the above product characterized by two very distinct stages involving composting, exposure to mycelial digestion to enable oxidation and aerobic processes to take place and secondly digestion and churning by a special culture of worms.

          The novel fertilizer mixture increases soil aeration, improves tilth and encourages easy workability. There is an increase in soil aggregation and an enhanced water movement that is caused by capillary and non-capillary spaces created when such a fertilizer is used.

         The use of the novel fertilizer mixture provides for soil stabilization as a result of the aggregation of soil particles, which allows for increased plant growth and vigor.

         The achieved invention also assures of a fertilization mixture, which has controlled E.C levels therefore allowing for safe feeding and controlled salinity in the root zone. This also provides for a situation where the crops should not be fed every time they are watered. The invention also creates more advantages by improving the soil structure, which in turn increases water percolation and retention.
 
          Further such a mixture assures that growers are not forced to disturb the soil physically which is normaly the case in using fertigation alone causing damages in roots and also introducing physiological shock.

          The novel product allows for feeding during fertigation on peak hours and therefore leading to optimum growth. The invention allows for provisions of fertilizer mixture with neutral PH therefore acting as a soil buffer.

          Another technical solution achieved by the present invention relates to the fact that many state of the art fertilizers mixtures are specialized and should be used in a single crop only. The novel fertilizer mixture may be used for all types of crops at any stage of growth. Field crops, vegetables, fruit trees, potatoes, grapes, passion fruits, citrus, bananas, ornamentals, beans, field salads and many more others.

The invention also relates to a process characterized by a phase, which involves compost initialization, and mycelial stage followed by a vermic composting stage.

The initial stage involves collection of a highly lignified material like dry straw, rice husks or coffee husks then mixed with molasses, oilseed cakes, horse or chicken manure. This material undergoes aeration and watering for 168 hrs and after that rockphosphate, urea or Murate of Potash is added at this stage stacking takes place with strict PH control using magnux or gypsum. The duration of this stage is around 336 hrs then the material is thrashed and beaten to get a fine mixture. This stage sterilization takes place using steam at a temperature of around 54-58% .the duration of this stage is 168 hrs. The final stage of this initial phase involves spawning and mycelial development and takes around 2160 hrs coming up with a pseudo compost material.

The second phase starts with the aeration and stacking which also takes about 2160 hrs and a material that which is a lot similar to the product claimed in the invention.

Earthworms are introduced to the precursor material material, and at the same time farmyard manure is added to form worm casts, which are later, removed and then finally the material is sieved, rockphosphate incorporated and then aggregated.
 
Altenative 1
Agaricus SSP

Alternative 2
Penicillin SP

Alternative 3
Yeasts

And at the vermicompost stage could be altered in two alternatives:

Alternative 1
Lepidopterans (insect larvae)
Horse manure

Alternative 2
Lepidopterans
FYM (farmyard manure)

The final novel material in as per this invention is an organic fertilizer with complete macro and micronutrients, which comprise of:

Organic matter                20- 34%
Nitrogen                          1.5-1.8 %
Phosphate                        1.5-4.0%
Potassium                        1.3-2.7%
Calcium                           4.6 -5.8%
Magnesium                      1.3 -1.43 %
Micronutrients       
(S,Mn,B.Mo,Fe,Cu)         1.2    - 1.8%
Organic acids                   Humic acid 8.21%
                                         Fulvic Acid  3.20%
Ph                                     6.7-6.9

It is important to note that the invention is not restricted to the examples or ratio that are aforementioned but claim the novel product and process and to all that are in the spirit of the current invention.

Claims

1)    A product containing organic fertilizer mixture characterized by a complete combination of the required macro and micro nutrients in the following ratios:

Organic matter                      20-30%
Nitrogen                                1.5- 1.8 %
Phosphate                              1.5-4.0%
Potassium                              1.3-2.7%
Calcium                                 4.6    -5.8%
Magnesium                            1.3    - 1.43 %
Micronutrients       
(S, Mn, B,Fe, Cu)                  1.3    - 1.8 %
and Organic acids       
             Humic acid                           8.21%
             Fulvic acid)                           3.20%
C.E.C (meq)                                      38-44%
Ph                                                      6.7- 6.9

2)    A product according to claim 1 characterized in that the product is in solid state and contains between 20 and 30 % by weight of organic matter.


3)    A product according to claims 1 and2 characterized in that the product contain 1-2% nitrogen, 1-3% potassium,4-6% calcium,1-2% magnesium.

4)    A product according to claim 1 to 3 characterized in that the micronutrients, sulphur, manganese, boron, iron and copper of the ratio between l-2 %.

5)    A product according to claim 1 to 4 characterized in that the weight ratio of organic acid namely humic acid is between 8 - 9 % .

6)    A product according to claim 1 to 5 characterized in that weight ratio of fulvic acid is 2 - 4%

7)    A product according to claim 1 to 5 characterized in that the ratio of cation exchange capacity is between 30 -45 %.

8)    A product according to claim 1 to 6 characterized in that the PH of the mixture is maintained at between 6.5 - 7.0 %

9)    A process for producing the product in claim 1 characterized in that it comprises of a compost generation stage where aeration, watering, stacking takes place with PH and temperature control.

10)    A process for producing the product in claim 1 characterized by a mycelial stage that involves sterilization, spawning, and mycelial development.

8. The pharmaceutical composition of Claim 7 wherein said enteric coating includes the methacrylic acid copolymer in an amount within the range from about 5 to about 30% of the total composition weight, and said plasticizer in an amount within the range from about 0.5 to about 6% of the total composition weight.

9.    The pharmaceutical composition of claim 8 wherein said methacrylic acid copolymer is methacrylic acid copolymer, Type c (Eudragit L-30-D 55).

10.    The pharmaceutical composition of Claims 4 and 5 wherein said plasticizer is diethyl phthalate, triethyl citrate, triacetin, tributyl sebecate, or polyethylene glycol.'

11.    The pharmaceutical composition of Claim 10 wherein said plasticizer is diethyl phthalate.

12.    The pharmaceutical composition of Claim 10 wherein said enteric coating includes methacrylic acid copolymer and diethyl phthalate.

13.    The pharmaceutical composition of Claim 2 wherein said anti-adherent coating is a hydrophobic

material.

14.    The pharmaceutical composition of Claim 13 wherein the anti-adherent coating is talc, magnesium stearate or fumed silica.

15.    The pharmaceutical composition of Claim 14 wherein the anti-adherent coating is talc.

16.    The pharmaceutical composition of Claims 8 and 15 wherein said anti-adherent is present in an amount within the range from about 0.1% to about 4.0% of the total composition weight.
ABSTRACT
 The present invention relates to products that can be used as organic fertilizer ad rooting medium and the process or the method of producing such products. The Novel process is a two tier process that combines both production of fermentable organic compounds through fungal decomposition and insect digestion to arrive at products that are of purely humus and with all pertinent soli ameliorates. The product also contains nitrogen and phosphorous compounds suitable for use on a carbon source for fermentation as a rapidly acting fertilizer and soil improvement agents/condioners.
The final novel material in a as per this invention is an organic fertilizer with complete macro and micronutrients, which comprise of:
Organic matter                      20-34%
Nitrogen                                1.5- 1.8 %
Phosphate                             1.5-4.0%
Potassium                             1.3-2.7%
Calcium                                 4.6 -5.8%
Magnesium                           1.3  - 1.43 %
Micronutrients       
(S, Mn, B,Fe, Cu)                  1.2 - 1.8 %
and Organic acids       
                                               Humic acid 8.21%
                                               Fulvic acid)  3.20%
Ph                                           6.7- 6.9

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