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(11) Patent number: KE 265
(45) Date of grant:
(51) Int.Cl.: 8 A21
(21) Application Number: 10E/P/ 2005/ 000473
(22) Filing Date: 15/12/2005
(31) Priority Number:
(73) Owner(s): MR. KELECHI OBILOR and DR. KATE CHINYERE OBILOR of P.O.
BOX 27693-00506, NAIROBI., KENYA
(72) Inventor(s) MR. KELECHI OBILOR
(74) Agent/address for correspondence:
(54) Title: “PROCESS OF MAKING FULLY COOKED CASSAVA MEAL, THE
(57) Abstract: The invention relates primarily to an improved method of dehydration which is
particularly useful in preparing dehydrated cassava and/or sweet potato products and/or flour. It involves peeling off the cassava tube and/or sweet potato, washing the same and consequently mashing it. It is the dried, fried on a pan to attain powder. Some palm oil is added to the powder yellow colour. The powder is then packed then supplied to departmental stores for sale and consumption by consumers.
Garri is helpful in cases of celiac disease, liver disease and convalescents from serious disease or surgery and reinitiating solid foods after a period of fasting. Garri is light and easy to use and suitable for areas where few facilities exist. Garri can also be mixed with all savory foods, milk (hot or cold) to make it a sweet cereal thus making Garri an ideal food for the sick, elderly and young at their tender age.
TITLE: PALATABLE GARRI "THE ALTERNATIVE FOOD"
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
(1)Field of Invention
The present invention is concerned with the utilization of flours and other valuable edible and industrial products from the tubers of the cassava and all other plants producing tubers of the family Euphorbiaceae. Similarly, the present invention is concerned with using sweet potatoes and all other light-fleshed tubers of the family Convolvulaceae, with the purpose of producing various flours from the tubers, and other valuable edible products and industrial products.
The present application discloses alternate processes for manufacturing these and other flours as well as the obtaining of products from flours where the sources of raw materials for the flours are obtained from any of a variety of sources of starch, soluble fibers, and insoluble fibers. These flours and products can be manufactured and used in a manner similar to those described previously for sweet potatoes and cassava with modification as needed to allow for differences in consistency, moisture retention, and baking properties and the like. The present invention is concerned with the utilization of starch, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber to form flours suitable for obtaining baked products of risen structure, and also products with colloidal properties, and other properties as described for sweet potatoes.
The present invention relates to an improved method of preparing dehydrated cassava and sweet potato products. In particular, the present convention is primarily concerned with;
(1) Peeling the cassava tuber and/or sweet
(2) Substantially washing the
(3) Grounding the cassava or sweet potato into paste
(4) Reducing the drying time of the raw product and then compressing it to extract
water leaving it dry.
(5) Frying the dry cassava or sweet potato on a heated
(6) Addition of palm oil to it to give it cream colour leaving the dry cassava or sweet potato white
(7) Trial product is powder rich in starch and is of high nutritional values.
(2)The Background Art
Food allergies and intolerances have been known to exist for hundreds of years. The symptoms vary with each individual, and can include congestion, asthma, diarrhea, headaches, dizziness, joint pains, hives, eczema and in the most severe cases can cause anaphylaxis and even death. In recent decades, along with most other diseases related to the immune or auto-immune system, the incidence of food allergies has increased. In addition the number of foods to which a given individual reacts and the severity of the reactions seems to be increasing. Indications are that food allergies will continue to become increasingly more common and severe.
Having food products available from as many different food sources as possible is of the greatest importance to persons with food allergies, and will become of even greater importance as food allergies are diagnosed in increasing numbers of people. As the potential problems of food allergies are more recognized, increasing numbers of people are looking for non-wheat items to include in their diets, to increase variety and aid in the prevention of food allergies.
The need for new food sources and alternatives parallels the increase in food allergies. As the number of foods an individual can eat begins to dwindle, it becomes increasingly more difficult to maintain a nutritious, well-balanced diet from the foods remaining, and the search for new foods intensifies. For many food allergy patients, the allergy problem steadily becomes more severe as the patient is unable to avoid becoming malnourished.
There is, then, a real need for alternatives to the food products that are the common and accepted staples in the African diet. These food products need to be from hypoallergenic foods so that they can have the best chance of being well tolerated by the greatest numbers of people. The hypoallergenic food products need to provide acceptable substitutes for the most hyperallergenic food products such as maize, wheat, rice, and other members of the grass family, legumes, milk and milk products, eggs, nuts, and yeast.
The alternative food products should be from less common or less well known foods. Such foods will have been eaten less often, if at all, and there will be a lower chance for a person to have developed allergies to the new foods. Products from such uncommon foods could probably be tolerated by most persons, and the risk of developing allergies to the foods would be lower.
The alternative food products need to be developed from foods in separate food families. This is important because food allergy patients can easily develop allergies to foods that are closely related to the foods they are already allergic to. New food products from as many new food families as possible (for example sweet potato products from the morning glory family and cassava products from the spurge family). Alternative food products from food families not frequently included in peoples' diets will increase substantially the foods that people can eat in their rotation diets.
The alternative food products need to be highly concentrated foods. The above list of hyperallergenic foods includes most of the concentrated carbohydrates in the normal American diet. When people have to exclude these foods from their diets, the plant sources they have left to eat are primarily green leafy vegetables, tubers, and fruits. These food sources are high in fiber, but are relatively low in carbohydrates. A person who must rely on potatoes or sweet potatoes as their main source of carbohydrates, must eat about 2.3 Kg (5 pounds) each day. It is very hard for many adults to eat this much food, but it is even more difficult for allergic children who may have to eat almost as much as an adult.
The alternative food products need to be as close to the eliminated foods as possible, in form and texture. For example, ugali, breads, pastas, cereal, cookies are needed from hypoallergenic sources, and these need to be as similar in taste and texture to their hyperallergenic counterparts as possible. This will make it possible for persons to enjoy foods they are used to, and will make them more likely to stay on their diets. Also people who are concerned that they may have food allergies are more likely to seek medical treatment if they know they will have pleasant alternatives in their diets.
Alternative food products are needed that consist of one primary ingredient, and this ingredient serves to replace wheat and other grains, milk, eggs, nuts, yeast, and sugar. The food allergies of individuals vary so greatly, that as the number of ingredients in a product increase, the number of individuals that can use the product decreases. Similarly, the products need to be free of additives, preservatives, and so forth, and should be completely free of pesticides and other chemicals.
Other characteristics that are important in new food products include convenience, portability, and variety. Many patients must change their diets at a time when they are very ill, and they simply do not have the strength to perform the food preparation needed when working with fresh fruits and vegetables.
Until now there has been no food product which could meet all of the above
criteria. Many food products have been developed, but essentially all contain either wheat, or other grains, soy or legumes, milk, eggs, nuts, yeast, or sugar, or they do not have the characteristics of the common food products. Many specialty flours such as amaranth, have been combined with wheat flour to make new products, and these are not useful to the food allergic patient.Until now, it has not been possible to completely replace wheat products with a non-grain flour that does not contain other main ingredients such as legumes, eggs, milk, sugar, and yeast, and chemical modifiers.
In order to develop the needed alternative food products, it was first necessary to identify flours with suitable properties, and further with each of such flours, separately, as primary ingredient, to develop processes and techniques for preparing food products with properties and characteristics previously obtainable only from products containing wheat and other grains, legumes, eggs, milk, nuts and the like.
To find flours with suitable properties, existing flours of the art for sweet potatoes and cassava were evaluated. As is described below, using these art flours, other investigators had previously attempted to develop food products that were as completely non-grain in content as possible. In no case were these investigators able to prepare the desired food products without including other ingredients such as chemical modifiers and palm oil. In most cases, prior investigators were able to use a non-wheat flour as a substitute for only a small percentage of the total amount of wheat flour in baked products. Uses of high carbohydrate flours to prepare substitutes for milk and milk products, eggs, and nuts is unknown.
According to the prior discovery, this invention is simple in its manufacturing process. There are no patents in force in Kenya on this GARRI product.
Notwithstanding this fact however, the following quoted publications or patents exists in other countries but are not similar to the present invention.
. An Invention proposed in a German patent publication Number WO/ 2003/105604 relates to half finished product consisting of a plurality of cut elements which are obtained from the bulbs of the cassava plant, deep frozen and packed in a container. The said food can be easily prepared by the consumer by drying or preparing in the oven or in a microwave, thus obtaining, in a simple manner, a food product with high quality in terms of taste and nutritional physiology.
However, the product does not produce a paste.
. An invention proposed in a United States patent publication Number
WO/ 87/04599 which relates to flours prepared from white sweet potatoes, cassava, edible aroids, tropical yams, lotus, arrowhead, buckbean and amaranth and a variety of different food products prepared from them. These are substitutes for wheat and other grains, legumes, milk eggs and partial substitute for nuts but do not involve addition of palm oil.
.An invention proposed in European patent Application i.e. EP 1483 977 AI which relates to a time released nutritional food product and a method of making it is provided in which product includes a plurality of gram or seed based constituents having plural digestion rates. In a preferred embodiment, the product can be prepared by cooking the constituent parts together as a mixture at a substantially single length of cooking time. For example, palatable product can be cooked by adding water, boiling for a given amount of time and eaten. In an embodiment the constituent parts include processed and unprocessed grains but not tubers, at least one of which forms a gelatinous coating on the others when cooked.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION
Therefore, it was necessary to develop new flours which could be more successfully used in the preparation of non-wheat flour products. Contrary to the teachings of the art, we have found that when the dried tubers were comminuted to fine, relatively uniform particle size and wherein said relatively uniform particle size is obtained with greatly reduced amounts of sifting or without sifting, and thereby containing most or all of the plant fiber and other non-farinaceous material of the tuber in the finely divided flour, there resulted a flour with unique and surprising properties, which was suitable for developing the desired processes and products.
These flours were found to each have unique and surprisingly different properties, and methods of preparation of each flour differ as well. Although no flour could be used in the same way as wheat flour, and although no two flours could be used in the same ways. It was possible to develop processes for each flour, and these processes were used to produce products comprising substantially one non-wheat flour ingredient with such products having properties and characteristics previously obtainable only from products containing ingredients selected from: wheat and other grains, legumes, eggs, milk, nuts, chemical modifiers, and the like.
New flour products with heretofore unobtainable properties have been developed from tubers of sweet potatoes and cassava. Each flour possesses different, unique, and surprising properties. Separate processes have been developed for each flour that allow its use as a substitute for grains, milk, and eggs, among other uses.
We have found that flours having properties similar to those of sweet potato and other flours described in earlier patent applications may be obtained by combining the major components of the flours which may have been either obtained separately from the whole tuber, vegetable, or starchy fruit, or from different sources. In other words whole flours may be used to obtain baked products of risen structure, and in addition combined flours obtained by combining starch, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber may be used to obtain baked products of risen structure. These flours may be combined prior to baking or may be added to doughs together or at separate times during dough preparation.
The properties of flour and starch prepared from orange sweet potatoes are well known, and have been reported in the patent literature as early as the 1840's. Dried, ground orange sweet potatoes were patented for use as an ingredient in a coffee blend (U.S. Pat. No. 100,587 issued in 1870) because dried orange sweet potatoes look and taste like burned bricks. The caroteen pigment concentrates during drying and causes the disagreeable taste and color. The other patented uses of orange sweet potato flour are limited primarily to that of rehydratable powders primarily for use in orange sweet potato pie or pumpkin pies. This is probably due to the strong taste of orange sweet potato flour, the fact that when rehydrated, orange sweet potato flour loses cohesion, and will not keep a shape or hold trapped air. There are numerous mentions in the patent literature of processes for combining cooked or raw starches or flours from starchy tubers with various ingredients. Sweet potatoes (orange varieties) are frequently used as examples of 'other tubers'.
There is no reference to flours of white sweet potato varieties in the patent literature.
Several important teachings of the art have directed investigators completely away from any consideration of sweet potatoes as possibilities for producing useful products.
Raw orange sweet potato flour made by the methods of Marshall (U.S. Pat. No. 77,995), and Baylor (U.S. Pat. No. 100,587) produced flour considered inferior. The orange sweet potatoes tended to darken during dehydration; this darkened flour could not be rehydrated to make a good tasting substitute for the original fresh product, and the flour tended to have a very strong bitter taste, particularly when produced by the method of Baylor. Because of the inferior properties of raw orange sweet potato flour, in the late 1800's and early 1900's the field as a whole turned emphasis away from raw to cooked orange sweet potato flours. In the only mention of raw orange sweet potato flour since then, it is described as cattle fodder.
No orange sweet potato flour, whether raw or cooked, has been able to be used for more than about 30% of a wheat dough without significant deterioration in texture, risen structure, and taste. Even when a 15-85 mixture of orange sweet potato flour and wheat flour was used, the resulting bread product was significantly lower in specific volume. At ratios of 20-80, the specific volume of the bread product was reduced by 50 percent.
Other investigators have added cooked orange sweet potato flour to many products such as cookies, cakes, candies, ice cream, breads, and the like. In not one case was it possible to develop a product with orange sweet potato flour as the primary ingredient. It was only possible to add small amounts of cooked orange sweet potato flour to existing recipes containing conventional ingredients and to produce previously known products having orange sweet potato flavor and color.
White sweet potato flour is essentially an uninvestigated flour because fresh white sweet potatoes are considered (especially in the U.S and Africa) to be inferior to orange sweet potatoes. Sweet potatoes having white or light colored flesh are described as having poor quality and as being useful primarily for cattle fodder. If considered, the properties of white sweet potato flour would be expected to be less desirable than those of orange sweet potatoes.
In our early research on sweet potatoes, we tried making and using flours of orange sweet potatoes. The flavor of the raw orange sweet potato flour was very strong, as was described by other investigators. When we tried to use the flour to prepare pancakes and the like, the products fell apart in much the same way that fresh orange sweet potatoes tend to fall apart when they are cooked. In agreement with the teachings of the art, we were unable to prepare any products from orange sweet potato flour alone.
We then began to work with white sweet potatoes. In my early research on white sweet potato flour, the white sweet potato flour was made by a high speed impact method which produced a flour of wide particle-size distribution, with the fibrous portions of the tuber remaining in the larger particle sizes, and rendering the flour unsuitably heavy and gritty. When screened, (as is accepted practice in the art to obtain a fine flour) the larger particles (representing about 1/3 of the total weight of the comminuted meal) were removed; this produced a lighter and less gritty flour, but one poorly suited for producing breads and other products where consistency and lightness are important. In addition it has been found that previous shreds had a high moisture content that made them susceptible to spoilage during dehydration and produced inferior products that spoiled easily.
We then developed a new process for preparing white sweet potato flour which
involved reducing moisture content and incorporating more fibrous and non-farinaceous material into a flour of fine particle size. This flour had improved storage capability and provided products of palatable consistency. This flour, the flour of the instantly claimed invention, is suitable for use in baked and other products, and it was possible to develop new processes, different from conventions of the art, which made it possible to use the white sweet potato flour of the instantly claimed invention to prepare products with properties and characteristics previously only obtainable from products containing wheat and other grains, legumes, eggs, milk, nuts and the like.
We then applied this new process for preparing white sweet potato flour, which involved reducing moisture content and incorporating more fibrous and non-farinaceous material into a flour of fine particle size, to orange sweet potatoes, and found that the properties observed for the instant whole sweet potato flour were also the properties observed for orange and yellow varieties, hence all sweet potatoes.
Cassava is a tuberous root of the Spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. As a fresh tuber it is boiled in salted water and consumed directly or after further frying or baking. It is used in soups, stews, and the like, or it is mashed to a thick paste and fried. A variety of dried, pulverized products are known including: a mash is fermented, then dried to form a coarse, crunchy meal; the fibers are separated from the starch which is dried and powdered. The cassava starch, also called cassava flour, is similar in properties to cornstarch. It has quite high expansion capabilities when mixed with water and gelatinized, and is therefore used as a thickener, an agent to increase the rise of many products, and an agent to improve consistency and homogenicity. There are many references to cassava starch or tapioca starch in the literature, and some references to cassava flour called tapioca flour. By their interchanging uses it is apparent that such uses generally refer to the starch product and not to the flour.
Prior to the instantly claimed invention, four flours of cassava were known. None of these flourshave the properties of the instantly claimed invention; none can be used in the ways described for the instantly claimed invention. The two most common cassava flours are formed from cassava starch extraction processes: the starch and the extracted fiber mat. The third flour is a composite flour, i.e., a mixture of cassava flour and a high protein flour. The fourth flour is a whole flour of cassava.
Cassava starch also called cassava flour, tapioca starch, and tapioca flour, is an extract of starch from cassava pulp, that is dried and pulverized to a flour. Most literature references to cassava or tapioca flour are references to cassava starch. Cassava starch has been used as a substitute for up to 30% of the wheat flour content in wheat-based bread-type products, but it is not possible to substitute cassava starch for more than 30% of wheat in wheat-based baking products.
Cassava meal is a highly fibrous (often fermented) meal prepared from the dried pulp fiber by-product of cassava starch production. The particles of the meal are about 1/2-1 mm in diameter. Garri, farinha, or mandioca are similar products of this type. Cassava meal is mixed with water and fried to produce a product called cassava bread. The bread is very hard and about 0.6 cm (1/4 inch) thick. It exhibits no risen structure and is simply a hard mat of fibers. Other uses of the meal include mixing the meal with meats and gravies, preparation of a gruel, and sprinkling the meal over food.
Composite flours of cassava are combinations of cassava starch and high protein flours, such as peanut, soy, or wheat. Non-grain breads have been made from cassava composite flours. About a 30:70 ratio of high-protein flour to cassava starch is required, and chemical modifiers, fat, and sometimes malt are essential to successful preparation of the baked product. It has heretofore been possible to use only composite flours, not cassava flour alone, to produce non-wheat products of risen structure, and the risen structure-type products have only been possible from composite flours when chemical modifiers and fat are also used. Until the present invention it was thought that the protein content of and the levels of diastatic enzymes in, cassava flour or starch were too low, and that cassava flour alone could not be used to produce baked products of risen structure.
The whole cassava flour of the prior art is prepared from the portion of the cassava tuber that remains after the thick peel and the woody portions of the tuber are discarded. The pulverized meal is sieved as the final step to flour production; these steps remove substantial amounts of fiber from the final flour product. This cassava flour does not have the properties of the instantly claimed flour and cannot be used successfully as a primary flour to prepare baked products and the like.
No investigator has been able to use more than a 30% substitution of the above whole cassava flour for wheat flour in preparation of baked products, and whole cassava flour is considered greatly inferior to cassava starch. Until the present invention, it was generally thought that the fiber content of cassava flour strongly interferes with formation of risen structure.
The general teachings of the art which have directed investigators completely away from developing the cassava flours and the uses of the instantly claimed invention are as follows:
1) The art teaches that the best cassava flour for baking is one which has a high starch level and in fact is a starch.
2) The art teaches that tubers with the highest possible starch content and lowest possible fiber content are preferred as sources for flour. The least desirable, to the point of being unusable are post mature tubers where starch levels have dropped and lignification (resulting in highest possible fiber content) has occurred.
3) The art also teaches against the use of the entire substance of the cassava tuber. Indeed prior art teachings concerning processing steps for production of cassava flour, involve selective removal and discarding of the most fibrous portions of the cassava tuber. In the instantly claimed invention, the flours from such lignified tubers produce a flour with the best properties.
When processing cassava tubers, the art teaches that the fibrous, woody ends of the cassava tubers are to be cut off and discarded, also the low starch inner layer of the peel is usually discarded. These teachings produce flours with reduced levels of protein and fiber in comparison to the instantly claimed flour.
Cassava has a thick peel composed of a thin outer cork layer (1/2-2% of total weight of the tuber) and a thick inner layer composed of the phelloderm and phloem (8-15% of total weight of the tuber). On average, 25% of the root is discarded as skin and trimmings. Therefore the amount of highly fibrous material removed from cassava in trimming and removing the fibrous woody ends is about 10-15% of the total weight of the tuber.
Although if the outer cork layer of the skin is included in the instantly claimed flour product, its presence will not alter the unexpected benefits of the instantly claimed invention, the presence of the thin cork layer in the flour may interfere with the taste and color of the flour, and removal of the thin cork layer is preferred.
Even assuming that the maximum amount, 2%, of the cork layer is removed, and allowing 5% for removal of blemishes and the like, a total of about 18% of the cassava tuber that is normally discarded as inner peel and woody ends, is incorporated into the instantly claimed invention. (This percentage can rise to about 50% when post mature, lignified tubers are used in flour production.) The inner part of the peel, is known to contain only about half of the amount of starch of the core of the root and therefore contains greatly increased amounts of fiber. The highly woody ends of the roots are even lower in starch and higher in fiber than the inner layer of the peel.
4) The art also teaches that flour finishing steps of the art select for high starch
and low fiber content of the finished flour. The art teaches that in processing
flour, bolting or otherwise sieving is performed to produce a finer flour. A flour processed by screening or the like can not contribute the part removed by screening to the finished flour, and therefore the entire, thinly peeled substance of the tuber is not utilized. Screening processes significantly reduce the fiber content of the finished flour.
Sieving a cassava flour will reduce both the fiber content and the protein content. When the most coarse fraction of a cassava flour and the finest fractions are compared, the coarse fraction contains about 3.5 times the amount of fiber of the finest fraction, and the coarse fractions are much higher in protein as well.
5) The art teaches strongly that in preparing baked products, no more than 30% of the wheat flour ingredient may be replaced by cassava, and that to achieve these levels requires the addition of shortening or oils, chemical modifiers, and the like.
6) The art finally teaches that non-wheat baked products of risen structure can not be prepared from cassava flour alone, and that baked products prepared from cassava flour are possible only when prepared from composite flours (comprised for example of cassava flour and a high protein pressed seed flour), and other essential ingredients including chemical modifiers and shortening.
Other than the above mentioned uses of cassava flour as an ingredient in baked goods, there have been very few attempts to develop food products from cassava flour. Pasta products have been prepared from composite flours containing cassava flour. Cassava starch is commonly used as a minor ingredient in ice cream.
The cassava flour of the instantly claimed invention has properties that are opposite to these teachings. The best flour is not a starch, but rather a whole flour containing increased amounts of plant fiber and other non-farinaceous materials than are previously encountered. Tubers with high fiber content are preferred sources for the flour. Preferred processing steps incorporate woody parts and inner peel into the flour. The best flour comminutes all fibrous material into the flour. Preferred flours for baking are fine in particle size. Baked products from 100% cassava flour are made, and no other flours, chemical modifiers and the like are needed other than water and a leavening agent.
In our early research on cassava, the cassava flour was made by a high speed impact method which produced a flour of wide particle-size distribution, with the fibrous portions of the tuber remaining in the larger particle sizes, and rendering the flour unsuitably heavy and gritty. When screened, (as is accepted practice in the art to obtain a fine flour) the large particles were removed (this
amounted to about 1 /4 of the flour product); this produced a lighter and less gritty flour, but one poorly suited for producing breads and other products where consistency and lightness are important. In addition it has been found that previous shreds had a high moisture content that made them susceptible to spoilage during dehydration and produced inferior products that spoiled easily.
We then developed a new process for preparing cassava flour which involved reducing moisture content, incorporating more fibrous and non-farinaceous material into the flour, and obtaining a more uniform particle size distribution in the flour. This flour had improved storage capability and provided products of palatable consistency. This flour, the flour of the instantly claimed invention, is previously not known. The properties of this flour are uniquely and surprisingly different from the previously existing flours. There would be no reason to suspect that the instantly claimed flour would have these properties. The new flour is suitable for use in baked and other products, and it was possible to develop new processes, different from conventions of the art, which made it possible to use the cassava flour of the instantly claimed invention to prepare products with properties and characteristics previously only obtainable from products containing wheat and other grains, legumes, eggs, milk, nuts and the like.
The basis the present invention discloses a flour made out of dried and fried cassava and sweet potatoes termed herein as GARR. This invention can be economically and easily be manufactured as hereunder:
To manufacture Garri, a cassava tuber and/or sweet potato is peeled off. It is then washed to remove the soil stains to give it a clean appearance by use of clean water. Consequently, it is grounded taking the shape of paste, basically to reduce the size and then compressed to extract the water content in it to attain dry mass. The attained dry powder is then sieved and cooked in a frying pan in the described ratios to dry it further, palm oil is thus added to it t give it a cream colour or without palm oil, it remains white in colour. The result is to achieve the present invention which has a high quality of starch and other nutrition of great value. Garri is rich in Vitamins A, B and C i.e (48.2 mg/1 DOg), vitamin E, magnesium, potassium, iron and calcium. The palm oil added to it to give it a cream colour also contains vitamins A and E. Garri is easily digested when ingested and is beneficial in cases of digestive disorders because it retains a great amount of water due to its mucolyte(viscous) content and it is also an excellent emollient (softener) and a protector of the digestive lining.
It is also helpful in cases of celiac disease, liver disease and convalescents from serious disease or surgery and reinitiating solid foods after a period of fasting. Garri is light and easy to use and suitable for areas where few facilities exist. Garri can also be mixed with all savory foods, milk (hot or cold) to make it a sweet cereal thus making Garri an ideal food for the sick, elderly and young at their tender age.
1. A non-grain edible flour comprising the comminuted tuber or seed of at least one member selected from the group consisting of Convolvulaceae and Euphorbiaceae, and mixtures thereof, wherein the flour contains at least 50% of the plant fiber and other non-farinaceous substance of the tuber or seed.
2. A mixed flour comprising the flour of claim 1 and at least one material selected from the group consisting of grain flour, legume flour, leavening agent, emulsifiers, and added fiber.
3. The flour of claim 1, wherein the flour contains at least 75% of the plant fiber and other non-farinaceous substance of the tuber.
4. The flour of claim 1, wherein the selected tuber or seed is a tuber of family Euphorbiaceae.
5. A method of preparing a dehydrated cassava and/or sweet potato flour, Comprising;
a) Removing the skin by peeling and
washing it to white.
b) Grinding to paste to take a paste
form of between 15 and 30%
plant fibre and put them in sacks
c) Compressing the paste or mashed cassava and/or sweet potato to extract water content leaving it very dry with 1-2% moisture only.
d) Siev e the paste through 0. 2 - 0.6 mm mesh
e) Air- drying the powder by frying at temperatures between 70° C and 100° C on a big frying pan to obtain dry powder with moisture content of between 1% and 5% wherein the said powder is screened via 0.6mm mesh.
6. A dehydrated cassava or sweet potato flour prepared according to claim 5
wherein the flour is used as food and for other nutritional purposes including non-food use.
7. A method of claim 5 wherein 5% - 20% palm oil is added to give the flour yellow colour.
8. A method of claim 5 and 6 wherein the material is at least 80% - 90% starch.
9. A food product made with the dehydrated flour of claim 5.
10.A food product made with dehydrated floor and titled GARR1.
The invention relates to primarily to an improved method of dehydration which is particularly useful in preparing dehydrated cassava and/or sweet potato products and/or flour. It involves peeling off the cassava tube and/or sweet potato, washing the same and consequently smashing it. It is then dried, fried on a pan to attain powder. SUEDE Yr. Some palm oil is added t give the powder yellow colour. The powder is then packed then supplied to departmental stores for sale and consumption by consumers.
Garri is helpful in cases of celiac disease, liver disease and convalescents from serious disuse or surgery and reinitiating solid foods after a period of fasting. Garri is light and easy to use and suitable for areas where few facilities exist. Garii can also be mixed with all savory food, milk (hot or cold) to make it a sweet cereal thus making Garri an ideal food for the sick, elderly and young at their tender age