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(11) Patent Number: KE 00178
(45) Date of publication: 31/03/2004
(51)IPC (7): AO1N
(21) Application Number: KE/P/1999/00296
(22) Piling Date: 26/11/1 999
(73) Owner(s): Peter Stephen Odhiambo Agulo, of P.O BOX 127 HOMA-BAY
(72) Inventor: Peter Stephen Odhiambo Agulo
(54) Title: The processing of corchirus oliferus extracts
The invention relates to a process to extract a pure gel from Corchirus, which can be stored for a long duration of time and is devoid of toxins, is devoid of green pigments and whose quantities to be used in formulations is measurable and hence standardizable. The process involves cleaning the crude Corchirus powder by multiple extraction first in acidified 80% ethanol followed by alkalinated 80 % ethanol and finally aqueous 80% ethanol. The gel is extracted from the solid residue by mixing it with boiling water. A process, which is repeated two times to achieve near complete extraction. Separation of the mucilaginous gel from the solids is achieved first by separation on standing while still hot, sanction, decantation, and finally filtration or centrifugation. The clear brown mucilaginous gel is then stabilized by the addition of a preservative and an antioxidant. This mucilage is spray dried / evaporated under vacuum to powder or purified Tiligel powder.
THE PROCESSING OF CORCHORUS EXTRACTS
The Cochorus Spp. grows abundantly as a weed in most parts of Nyanza and Western
province in Kenya. From time immemorial, the people of Kenya have used this plant as a vegetable hence the vernacular names of Mrere (luhya), Apoth (Luo) etc. this plant has a mucilaginous gel, which can be used in many industries. In their use of this plant as a
10 vegetable the fresh plant is used in small manageable quantities. However, in industrial application large quantities would be used which makes handling it difficult and perishability high. Hence, the dry powdered form is recommended.
The dried powdered form when used in food has some mild side effects on the user, which 15 includes, tremors, slurred speech, joint pains, muscle pains, and ringing of the ears. These were a pointer to the possibility of existence of some toxins in the plant.
Aesthetically the green colour is not pleasant in any formulation. Because the mucilage is formed out of a high formula polysaccharide its filtration from the slurry is very difficult. A 20 process solving all these three problems has been developed.
Through this process I am able to remove the toxins, remove the green pigmentation, and Separate the ground plant materials from clear brown gel. The brown gel is convertible to a powder, which is soluble in water.
Fresh Cochoms Spp. Plants are washed clean in portable water, then immersed in boiling water at 100°c for 2 - 5 minutes, to inactivate enzymes, sterilize and breakdown cellulosic connective tissue. They are then immersed in 1 % sodium paraben for 30 minutes. This is followed by drying either under a shade for three (3) days or in a hot air oven for three (3) hours.
The leaves and other softer parts of the plant are separated from the stems by screening through a coffee tray wire sieve. They are then ground to fine powder in an electrical grinder to give the erode Cochorus powder.
The powder is then macerated for three (3) days in acidified 80% ethanol at the ration of 1:7 (1 part powder to 7 parts ethanol),with: frequent 30 minutes of stirring at 12 hourly intervals. On the last day the slurry is filtered through muslin cloth and the solvent completely expressed out of the solid residue, Immediately the solid residue is then transferred into an alkalinated 80% ethanol at the ration of 1: 5 for two (2) days, with stirring at twelve (12) hourly intervals, followed by filtration and expression.
Finally, the solid residue will undergo further maceration in aqueous 80% ethanol at the ration of 1: 5, followed by the filtration, expression and drying in open air in a room till all the alcohol and water evaporates. The powder so obtained is refined Cochorus powder which is yellowish in colour, tasteless, odourless, non-poisonous, and sterile and swells in water to almost three times its own volume.
PREPARATION OF STABILIZED TILIGEL.
Cold water is added to the refined Corchorus powder at the ratio of 20: 1. The mixture is stirred at high speed for 30 minutes using an electrical stirrer. The slurry is then heated to boil for 5 minutes also with a lot of stirring. The hot gel is poured into a container standing in a water bath set at between 50°c to 60°c. It is let to stand without disturbance for one hour (1 hr.), during which it separates into three layers. The top layer consisting of the light cutaneous layer of the leaves is carefully sacked out using a vacuum sucker or manually scooped out.
This leaves the middle layer, which is brown viscous solution, which is decanted out carefully into a separate container. The solid residue layer is left at the bottom and is fluffier extracted by addition of hot water with a lot of stirring at the ration of 10:1. It is allowed to stand and separates into two layers and is carefully decanted out. A further extraction of the remainingsolid residue is done with hot water at the same ratio 10:1 to give a total of three extractions.
The extractions are added together and then re-boiled for five minutes, it is then filtered or centrifuged to clarify. This is followed by concentration in a fruit juice concentrator to give a 5% solution or Tiligel. To which ascorbic acid and sodium paraben is added each at a concentration of 1 % with a lot of stirring to form stabilized Tiligel.
The stabilized Tiligel is a clear coffee brown viscous liquid, tasteless odourless and slippery to touch. It is to be noted that stabilized Tiligel can be used directly in all the possible industrial manufacturing process. However, due to slow degradation by the process of hydrolysis it’s stable for a shorter period than the Tiligel powder.
Hence, by using a spray drier / freeze drier / vacuum evaporator the stabilized Tiligel (or un-stabilized can be dried directly) is reduced to powder.
The Tiligel powder is a brown amorphous, free flowing powder that is Hygroscopic, odourless and tasteless. It is soluble in both cold and hot water, insoluble in organic solvents including absolute alcohol, glycerine and propyl Glycol.
The above process gives a sterile extract because of the stages of heating, ethanolic treatment and further heat treatment during separation. It is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the exact details of operation, or to the exact imposition, methods, procedures,
or embodiments shown and described as obvious modifications and equivalents will be apparent to one skilled in the art and the invention is therefore limited only by the full scope which can be accorded to the appended claims.
1. A solvent and heat purification, extraction and sterilization process for the production of concentrated Cochorus extract to be converted to powders, wherein the PH of the purification solvent is varied and the extraction of the ground Cochorus leave is by using water at 100c in three stages and separation achieved by precipitation and decantation in a water bath set at 50°c-60°c, followed by filtration or centrifugation, wherein stabilization of the solution is by addition of a preservative and an antioxidant as follows:-
a. Cleaning the plant and subjecting it to temperature of 100° c for 2 to 5 minutes in boiling water.
b. Immersing the plant in a solution of 1 % ascorbic acid and 1 % sodium paraben.
c. Drying the plant under shade in an airy room for 3 days or in a hot air oven for 3 hours.
d. Separating the leaves from the stem and grinding to fine powder.
e. Macerating the powder in 80% acidified ethanol at the ratio of 1:7 for three 20 days followed by maceration of the solid residue in alkalinated 80% ethanol at 1:5 for 2 days, then finally repeating the same but in aqueous 80% ethanol for2 days.
f. Drying the solid residues in an aerated room for three days.
g. Extraction of the tiligel from the solids by boiling in water at the ratio of 20 water: 1 part powder for 5 minutes. Allowing the slurry to stand for 1 hour in a water bath at 50° c-60°c for separation to occur.
h. Removal of the cutenous layer by careful sucking or scooping and decanting the middle tiligel layer to a different container.
I. Re- extraction of the solid layer by addition of boiling water at 10 parts; 1 part solid, followed by separation and decantation. Repeating this step.
j. Filtration or centrifugation of the tiligel layer and subsequent stabilization by addition of 1 % ascorbic acid and 1 % sodium paraben.
k. Conversion of the stabilized Tiligel to powder by the process of spray drying / freeze-drying / evaporation under vacuum.
2. A process of claim 1, wherein enzyme deactivate is done by boiling at 100' c for 2-5 minutes, including preservation and stabilization by addition of a preservative and antioxidant.
3. A process of claim 1, wherein the plant material extracted is from the Cochorus Spp.
Mainly Cochorus &items and Cochorus Trilocularis.
4. A process of Claim 1 ,wherein toxins and other unwanted substances are extracted by using solvents of varying PH in Three steps followed by filtration to give pure 45 Cochorus powder.
5. A process of Claim 4, wherein extraction is done by maceration first for 3 days, then for 2 days and finally 2 days, at the ratio of 7 parts ethanol to 1 part powder.
6. A process of Claim 1 of extracting the gel in boiling in water at 20 parts water to 1 part powder for 5 minutes, from the pure Cochorus powder of claim 4.
7. A process of claim 1, wherein the concentration of water to powder is set at 20: 1 which is the optimum concentration for slurry separation to occur effectively and rapidly.
8. A process of claim 7, where separation occurs in a water bath set at 50° c to 60° c to accelerate precipitation.
9. A process of claim 7, where the final separation is achieved by sucking out the top layer, decanting the middle layer and re washing the bottom solid layer twice at 10: 1 to achieve 90% extraction of tiligel.
10. A process of claim 1, wherein the clear brown gel extracts is clarified by filtration or centrifugation and concentrated to 5% tiligel.
11.A process of claim 1, wherein effective antioxidant and preservative is added to the concentrated Tiligel to achieve stabilized Tiligel.
12.A process of claim 1, wherein the gel is spray dried or evaporated to the brown amorphous Tiligel powder
13.A product of claim 4, herein referred to as refined cochorus Powder, A yellowish, free flowing powder, odourless, tasteless, swells in water to three times its volume.
14. A product of claim 4, herein referred to as tiligel Powder, A brown amorphous free flowing powder, hygroscopic, odourless and tasteless and Soluble in water.
15. A product of claim 10 and 11 herein referred to as stabilized tiligel, a Coffee brown
viscous liquid, tasteless, odourless and slippery to touch.