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(11) Patent Number: KE 161
(45) Publication date: 30/09/2003
(12) PATENT
(51) IPC (7): A61K35/78
(21) Application Number: KE/P/2000/00315
(22) Filling Date: 26/9/2000
(73) Owner(s): Kangubiri Girls Secondary School, P.O Box 1794, Nyeri
(72) Inventors (s):Isabel Mwangi; Caroline Mugecha; Ann Kamunge
(74) Agent: Kangubiri Girls Secondary School P.O Box 1794, Nyeri

(54) Title: A Laxative compound from senna didy extract for curing fungal and bacterial infections
 (57) Abstract
The invention relates to a process of obtaining laxative compounds from senna didy, wherein the extraction is done using the method in the present invention. The compounds are used for treatment of fungal and bacterial infections in a human subject.
Cited Documents
ZA 9803753;T. Bakta et al. natural products sciences , Vol 4 no.2, 1998 p84-87; C.S Shah & M.V. Shinde, The Indian J. of Pharmacy,
vol 31, no.1, 1968, p27-28; S.P alamichamy et al., Fitoterapia, vol.62, no. 2,1991, p153-156; GB 2112640.
 
A Laxative compound from senna didy extract for curing fungal and bacterial infections.
Technical Field
This invention relates to a Senna didy ointment, preparation and use in treating skin diseases
on a human subject.
Background art:
Senna didy is a shrub Mwenu (Kikuyu) whose leaves are known in the community to control
10 Ringworms, Sores, Wounds and Skin rashes. The shrub is universally known to control Ringworms, Sores, Wounds and Skin rashes in different tribes in Kenya and the local names in the different tribes is as shown below.
Botanical name: Senna didy
15 Kikuyu name: Mwenu
Meru name: Kirao
Kamba name: Muthaa
Kisii name: Omobeno
Luhya name: Luviriq
Maasai name: Olsenetoi
Nandi name: Senetuek
Tugen name: Senetiek
The medicament, medicine is soluble in organic solvents and not in water.
Disclosure of the invention
According to the invention, there is provided an extract from Senna didy (Ricicinus communis) mixed with candle wax for use in treating fungal and bacterial infection conditions containing sulphur based active agent.
The preparation involves the use of an organic solvent/alcohol as a solvent. It is believed that Ricicinus communis oil and alcohol preparations act to:
1. Weaken the S-H bonds in the epidermis and therefore facilitate absorption of the
Senna didy extract.
2. Aids in the breakdown of the fungal walls cell (glucosamine) to facilitate absorption into the body cells.
Alcohol is relative hence there is no tendency of skin inflammations or any other adverse skin reactions to be caused by the presence of the substance.
Ricicinus communis oil is skin compatible whereby the tendency of skin inflammations or any other adverse skin reactions to be coursed by the substance, Medicine, Medicament is absent.
Senna didy extract is an extremely active fungicide agent and bacterial agent, because the medicine, medicament, substance was seen to cure:
1. Fungal infections on the Skin readily.
2. Bacterial infections on the Skin readily.
 
The substance, medicine and/or medicament was poured, applied on a swap removed from a wound. The swap was cultured and bacteria growth spread on the culture. When Senna didy ointment, substance, medicine and/or medicament was applied on the infected area, the growth of the bacteria population stopped immediately. The above analysis indicates that the
substance is a control, cure of bacterial infections.
On fungal infections the substance, medicine, medicament was applied to about twenty (20) patients who had shown Ringworm, Skin rashes, Pimples and scores. When applied three times a day, the latter healed and nothing recurred on further observations.
The above concludes that Senna didy extract has a broad-spectrum activity on the skin infections. Preparation of the substance, medicament, and medicine involves
1. Chopping/gliding of the leaves/branches
2. Stem
3. Roots of the Senna didy to increase the surface area.
The products are placed in a container where a solvent is poured. The solvent must be an organic solvent, preferably alcohol but any organic solvent can do.
Since organic solvents are volatile - the above container is placed in a hot water bath where water is boiling at 100°c. At this temperature the organic solvent dissolves the active ingredients from the Senna didy to form Senna didy extract.
When dissolving is complete - the above product is filtered to give the Senna didy extract.
Organic solvents are volatile. When the above product is left overnight the organic solvent
evaporates leaving behind the Senna didy extract. To lower the rate of evaporation the container must be covered with either:
1. A piece of paper
2.A piece of cloth
The substance deposited contains sulphur as the active ingredient.
To confirm the presence of sulphur, the sulphur is oxidized with concentrated Nitric acid as shown below because nitric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent.
S(s) + 6HN3 (aq)            H2SO4 (aq) + 6NO2 (g) + 2H2O (L)
To confirm the oxidation process, the product of oxidation is added drop by drop to 2cm3 of aqueous barium chloride solution. A white precipitate forms confirming the presence of sulphur in the Serena didy extract.
The powdery requires any suitable medium as desired and as appropriate to the intended 45 physical form of preparation.
Moreover compatibility is also achieved in that
1. Desire penetration
2. Retention on the skin
3. Retention on the fungal cells
4. Desirable avoidance of advance skin reaction as discussed earlier.
The above help to eliminate secondary skin infections whether of fungal or bacterial origin. The above described ingredient of the invention namely:
1. Senna didy extract
2. Alcohol
3. Ricicinus communis oil
4. Candle wax.
The above maybe mixed with any suitable medium as desired and as appropriate to the intended physical form of the preparation as indicated below.
The ointment base may contain
1. Vegetable oils e.g. (I) Ricinus communis or (ii) Coconut oil
2. Synthetic esters of fatty acids
3. Animal fat (e.g. Lard) Waxes - Candle wax
An appropriate emollient (Suitable ointment base) may be used which may be of oil- in-water or water-in-oil kind as may be appropriate. Thus Paraffin, Oils, Fats, Waxes May be selected in any conventional manner as desired.
Suitably the emollient base should be a skin compatible composition whereby the preparation readily penetrates the epidermis and thereby facilitates absorption of the active ingredients in the preparations.
Vegetable oil does not easily penetrate the skin hence wool fat may be preferred if any modification is needed. Wool fat resembles the subcutaneous secretion of human skin but it is not readily absorbed into the tissues.

When Wool fat is mixed with yellow soft paraffin, it gives an emollient cream, which penetrate the epidermis. Oil-in-water emulsifying agents such as emulsifying wax may be incorporated into anhydrous base in case where water is added.
Senna didy extract is preferably around 53.0% of the total weight of the preparation. The
range may be between 50-75%.
The Senna didy extract may be made into a cream characterized in that it is a semi-solid emulsion of oil-in-water or water-in-oil type.
Emulsifying agent for aqueous creams includes emulsifying wax and sodium, potassium and
ammonium soaps. Oily cream may be prepared with emulsifying agent for example
1. Beeswax
2. Calcium soaps etc.
Senna didy extract is preferably 53.0% of the total weight of the preparation. The range
may be between 50-75%.
The Senna didy extract may be formulated as a paste i.e. semi-solid preparation. Pastes commonly consist of a high proportion of finely powered solid of matter Senna didy extract 50 with soft or liquid non-greasy base made with glycerin.
 
The Senna didy extract may be made as a powder. According to the preparation, the Senna didy extract is dried to form a powder. It is to be understood that any medium, solvent or base incorporated is simply to assist in the application of the Senna didy extract.
The Senna didy extract may also be made as lotion in that the extract is in form of lotion. A
lotion is a liquid preparation containing substances such as glycerin in or other solvents and/or light oil substances added to the Senna didy extract.
The Senna didy extract may also be made as a shampoo in that the extract is in form of shampoo. Where the preparation is incorporated in a shampoo containing an ionic surfactant, it may be necessary or desirable it may be necessary or desirable to incorporate a buffer to achieve a desired PH. In general a PH in the range of 3 or 9 but particularly 5 or 6 is desirable.

Any suitable buffer may be used for example compromising of an acid such as Lactic acid,
Citric acid and Tartaric acid with an acid salt such as sodium or potassium citrates etc.
Other non-therapeutic additives such as fragrances etc. may be incorporated with regard to the 20 proportions of the ingredients.
Other kinds of preparations are also possible. It is to be understood it is the Senna didy extract that is of importance. Any medium, solvent or base incorporated is simply to assist in the application of the main ingredients and accordingly may be of any suitable nature. Thus, it is even possible to use the main ingredients without any base medium or solvent or minimal quantities thereof.
The preparation may contain further ingredients as desired and as appropriate.
In general, having regard to the importance of ensuring that the active ingredient have good penetration, good retention in the skin and fungal cell wall, ensuring that there is little likelihood of adverse skin reactions being caused, It is desirable to minimize additions of further ingredients in particular solid or gum-like materials, which may clog the skins pores are generally undesirable and supplementary anti-bacterial or anti-fungal or other additives known to cause adverse skin reactions need to be avoided; although of course there may be circumstances in which such additive are appropriate.
Where the preparation is formulated with no significant content of ionic materials, the PH will generally tend to fall within an acceptable range.

With regard to the proportions of the ingredients, it is to be understood that any medium, solvent or base incorporated is simply to assist in the application of the main active agent and accordingly may be of any suitable nature.
The preparation may contain further ingredients as desired and as appropriate.
Thus the ranges of the Senna didy, Ricicinus communis oil and candle wax may be A. (in parts by weight)
 3.0 Ricicinus communis oil
 3.0 candle wax
 
3.0 Senna didy extract
B. in parts by ratio
Ricicinus communis oil: Senna didy extract: Candle wax
5    2    :3    :3
With the above ratios, there is sufficient Ricicinus communis oil and Candle wax to achieve the desired penetration and retention of Senna didy extract.
Higher proportions of Ricicinus communis oil and candle wax are possible but do not appreciably increase penetration/retention.
Lower concentrations of Ricicinus communis oil and candle wax may be possible but will reduce the penetration and retention.

From the above what is important is to ensure that the amount/ratio of senna didy is appropriate in the composition, medicament or substance for the treatment of fungal and/or bacterial infection on a human subject.

BEST MODE OF CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
The invention will now be described further in the following examples. All proportions are proportions by weight.
Example 1

The following ingredients were mixed in the stated proportions
Mwenu extract - 3.0
Emollient base - 2.0
 Candle wax - 3.0
Emollient base may consist of
(1) Ricicinus communis oil
(2) Candle wax or yellow soft paraffin and hydrous wood in equal part by weight.
The resulting mixture will form a paste/cream, which was found to be is dermatologically acceptable, storage stable and effective against a wide range of fungal and bacterial infections
including: -
1. MICROSPORUM SPECIES such as N. Canis, M. gallinae, N. culver etc
2. TRICOPHYTON SPECIES such as T. simii, T. rubrum, T. Equinum etc
The efficiency of the cream/ointment, substance; medicine; medicament was found to be such that, the maximum treatment time was one week for fugal or bacterial infections. In order to access the efficiency and acceptability of the preparation of Senna didy ointment/cream trials were undertaken as follows.
Patients suffering from fungal infection
Ratio of Mixing    Number of =20
patients
Senna didy:    Ricicinus    Candle wax    Not cured    Cured
communis oil;
 
 
1    1    12    8
2    1    13    7
2       1    2    18
2            2    2    18
3    2    2        19
3    2    3        19

Patients suffering from bacterial infection Ratio of Mixing
Senna didy:    Ratio of Mixing candle wax    not cured    Cured
Ricicinus communis oil;  
1   1   1    10    10
1    2    1    13    7
2    1    1    3                17
3    1    1    2    18
3    2    3    2    18

Patients suffering from bacterial infection
Use of Senna didy powder
Senna didy powder       Number of patient=20
Time applied per day
 
Not cured by I month 4 weeks
1 week
Bacterial
Time taken To cure          Bacterial
Fungi Time taken To
X1Not cured by I month         Not cured by 1 month
X2                              4 weeks                             4 weeks
X3                              1 week                              1 week
 
Each of the above was asked to either smear or apply the medicament, medicine or substance on the skin as the tables indicates above. Each attendance, patients were asked if they had any adverse reactions to the preparations they were using and whether they found the preparation
acceptable. There was a month follow up after the cure, which was established at second week.
Senna didy ointment was effective on 99.98% of the patients treated. There was no report of skin irritations after discontinuation of Senna didy ointment.
Proper recommendation of how to apply
Number of times per dayEffects of the infection on the skin
12 weeks

2Death after 5 days
3   Death after 3 days

Claims
1. Process for obtaining laxative compounds from Senna didy, wherein the extract is done using the method in the present invention for treatment of fungal and bacterial infection in a human subject.
2. The use and the process according to claim 1, as an ointment containing vegetable oils, synthetic esters and animal fats.
3. The use and the process according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the extract is made as a cream that is a semi-solid emulsion of oil in water or water- in-oil.
4. Process and use according to any of the preceding claims wherein the extract is made in form of a paste together with glycerin.
5. Process and use of the extract according to any preceding claims in form of powder.
6. Process and use of the extract according to any of the preceding claims as a lotion.
7. Process and use of the extract according to claim 1, in form of a shampoo at a PH of 5-6.
8. A medication, laxative composition or substance based on the Senna didy extraction process, for the treatment of fungal or bacterial infection on a human subject.

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