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Latest On Research

Safaricom & Internet Traffic Tampering

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Patent Drafting Course - Register Now

We have introduced a 3 month course facilitated on an e-learning platform. This course aims to introduce IP professionals to the skills of patent drafting and prosecution. Register here.

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What you need to know about trademarks

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Call for Proposals

Mapping and Making Available Evidence-Based Research for Internet Policies in Africa

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Find out more on Intellectual Property


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The following is a selection of publications published or co-published by members of CIPIT as well as other media reporting on the CIPIT’s research, outreach and training activities.

Forthcoming Articles

• Nzomo V & Rutenberg I, ‘Patenting the Un-patentable: Lessons for African Patent Systems from a Review of Patent Subject Matter Exclusions in Kenya”, South African Journal of Intellectual Property Law (2017). (Under Review).


Books and book chapters



  Rutenberg, I & Nzomo, V N. Patenting the Un-Patentable: Lessons for African Patent Systems from a Review of Patent Subject Matter Exclusions in Kenya.  South African Intellectual Property Law Journal 5, pp 58 –74 (2017). Available at this link.

 Nzomo, V B, ‘Rethinking the Regulation of Collective Management Organizations in Africa: Legislative Lessons from Kenya, South Africa and Nigeria’ 1 African Journal of Intellectual Property (2016), 1. Available at this link.

 Rutenberg, I., & Makanga, L. (2016). Utility model protection in Kenya: The case for substantive examination. The African Journal of Information and Communication (AJIC), 19, 19-37. (PDF)

 Rutenberg, De beer, Nzomo,Millar., “A Framework for Assessing Technology Hubs in Africa.” New York University Journal of Intellectual Property and Entertainment Law. Available at this link. (PDF)

 Rutenberg,I & Mwangi, J., “Do patents and Utility Model Certificates Encourage Innovation in Kenya?” The Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice. Available at this link.

 Rutenberg, I & Nzomo, V N. “Towards a National Intellectual Property Policy in Kenya: What was once perceived as belonging to community is today complicated by the idea of ownership. How do we begin to understand this shift?” Jahazi Issue 6 Vol. 1, 27-31. Available at this link.

 Rutenberg.I, Gwagwa.A, & Gichuki.D, “Historical antecedents and paradoxes that shaped Kenya’s contemporary Information and Communication Technology policies.” Harvard African Policy Journal, 61-75. Available at this link



• Karanja, M., (CIPIT), Xynou, M., (OONI) & Filastò, A., (OONI), 2016. Kenya: Censorship-Free Internet? Access Link 

• Xynou, M., Filastò, A., & Karanja, M. Ethiopia: Evidence of social media blocking and Internet censorship (2016). Access Link 

• Xynou, M., (OONI), Filastò, A., (OONI), Karanja, M., Gwagwa, A., & Rutenberg, I. Zambia: Internet censorship during the 2016 general elections? (2016). Access Link

• Xynou, M., (OONI), Filastò, A., (OONI), Karanja, M., Gwagwa. The Gambia: Internet Shutdown during 2016 Presidential Election: Primary research on Internet censorship in The Gambia during the General Elections (2016): Access Link

 Gwagwa, A. "Digital Media: An emerging repression battlefront in Angola? A study of Internet based information controls in Angola, with a particular focus on the period around the 23 August 2017 General Election" - Center for Intellectual Property and Information Technology Law, Strathmore Law School, Strathmore University, Kenya. (PDF).

• Gwagwa, A. When Governments Defriend Social Media: A study of Internet-based information controls in the Kingdom of Lesotho with a particular focus on the period around the 3 June 2017 General Elections (2017): Access Link

Conference Papers




In the press (selection)

• Comments on Proposed Regulations on Cyber Security (REGS) available on the Kenya Communication Regulator (Communication Authority) Website (2015) or on pages 42-46 in this PDF:


Legislation and Policy Reviews

CIPIT's Memo to Parliament on the Computer and Cybercrimes Bill 2017: Access PDF

Kenya National Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Master Plan 2013/14 -2017/18 is an ambitious undertaking, poised to cement Kenya’s position as Africa’s leading ICT Hub.

The fact it is a part of, and derives strength from, the 2006 National Information and Communications Technology Policy (policy) demonstrates the policy is responsive to domestic and global developments. Since its adoption, it has provided a normative framework through which the Kenyan ICT sector has hugely contributed to the country’s economic growth.

Most noticeable has been the growth in mobile commerce, with more than two-thirds of the adult population engaging in it, making Kenya the world leader in mobile payments. 

Although Kenya has come a long way in introducing liberal market reforms that have immensely benefited the technology sector, policy challenges remain. Just like most major economies, such as China, the government has actively promoted and supported the development of technologies that bolster the horizontal flow of information, but at the same time, has devoted substantial efforts to control the substance of information flowing via these technologies. Kenya, therefore, needs to introduce a number of policy reforms, key among which is addressing the current policy disjuncture between the policy’s liberal values on the one hand and the draconian and media national security laws.


Please see full publication here, (from page 61) in the Harvard Africa Policy Journal from the Harvard Kennedy School of Government.

Technical research conducted on several Internet service providers in Kenya for the last ten months between June 2016 and March 2017 indicates the presence of a middle-box on the cellular network of one provider, Safaricom Limited. Middle-boxes assume dual-use character in that they can be used for legitimate functions (e.g., network optimisation) and can simultaneously be used for traffic manipulation, surveillance and aiding censorship. 

In light of such dual uses, this report makes clear that service providers operating middle-boxes must communicate to the public in a transparent manner the justification for such activity. This is especially relevant as government bodies announce plans to monitor the Internet during Kenya’s current electoral processes.

This brief presents the methodology we use to detect middle-boxes, illustrates how that methodology was applied on Kenyan networks as well as our findings from the ten months investigations. Finally, we contextualization these findings within the Kenyan political and legal processes.

Access Other Publications


The African Union Convention on Cyber Security and Private Data Processing.

The project involves tracking the legal and political processes in the drafting, adoption and ratification of the AU Convention on e-Commerce, Data Processing and Cybersecurity. We have shared our research and recommendations with the African Union Secretariat, Member States and relevant actors in the ICT ecosystem in Africa on how the Convention can balance between security and liberty.


National Security Practice and Internet Freedom in Eastern Africa

The project, a part of the Information Controls Fellowship program of the Open Technology Fund, seeks to understand the role, if any, of National Security Agencies in limiting or promoting Internet Freedom in South Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya. It investigates the practices of security agencies in these countries from a conceptual construction of national security and the meaning this brings to what is legal or not.


Reframing Local Knowledge: ICTs, State-building, and Peace building in Eastern Africa.

This project seeks to bring greater clarity about the expectations and the realities of the use of communication technologies in developing contexts. It explores the use of ICTs in Eastern Africa at the macro level by examining how norms and practices in the field of ICT which have emerged internationally are adopted, resisted or reshaped at the local level and at the micro level, by exploring how the practices and policies promoted at the international and national level actually compare to the uses citizens make of ICTs.

Our partners include:

  • Google
  • Open Technology Fund (OTF)
  • iHub
  • KICTANet
  • Internet Society (ISOC)

Submit your email in the subscribe link below to get more information.


For entrepreneurs, individual inventors and startups; CIPIT offers free consultations to discuss your Intellectual Property, protect their Intellectual Property and navigate the complicated aspects of IP.

CIPIT takes you through the different forms of IP and advises on the most appropriate protection for your invention.

To set up a meeting with us, You can contact us here.

ICT Policy

 All the TechPolicies around Africa.

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 A record of registered marks in Kenya.

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Granted Patents

For ARIPO and Kenya Patents.

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Kenya IP Case Law

IP-related cases from Kenyan courts.

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